Philosophy Essays & Term Papers

211 total

Foucault and Truffaut: Power and Social Control in French Society Both Michel Foucault and Truffaut's depiction of a disciplinary society are nearly identical. But Truffaut's interpretation sees more room for freedom within the disciplinary society. The difference stems from Foucault's belief that the social control in disciplinary pervades all elements of life and there is no escape from this type of control. Foucault's work deals mostly with "power" and his conception of it. Like Nietzsch

Human nature brings up many sentiments in a lot of people. The most recent person whom I encountered who felt so was the instructor of my Stevenson Core Fall section. She passionately argued that there is no possible way that one can identify a human nature across the various cultures and times. I agree that it is absolutely impossible to prove that there is a human nature. Conversely, it is also impossible to prove there is not one. But, I believe the arguments for a human nature are stron

Hume and Hume(an) Nature: Concerning Self David Hume (1711-1776) was, in many respects, a traditional philosopher of the European Enlightenment. He worshipped the empirical appeal to the senses, and sought to create a philosophy of human nature that would reflect the power the senses hold over human lives. Hum's unique and brilliant arguments tossed many of the philosophies of his day in the trash heap. His blitzkrieg on the ideas of the time is said to have inspired Kant to eventually rise t

Philosophy 102 Dr. Harrison / T.A. Mark Faller / THE UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA March 16, 1998 The Existence of Species: Creation or Evolution? Since the beginning of time, man has been plagued with the question of how humans, along with all other forms of life on the earth, came into existence. For a long period of time most scientists believed that God created all species individually. This was because in the beginning of history, science and religion had not yet been separated, and peop

The Birth of Tragedy "Oh, wretched ephemeral race, children of chance and misery, why do you compel me to tell you what it would be most expedient for you not to hear? What is best of all is utterly beyond your reach: not to be born, not to be, to be nothing. But the second best for you is - to die soon." These sad words, uttered to King Midas by the demigod Silenus, lie at the heart of Nietzsche's The Birth of Tragedy. Silenus reveals to the Greeks, and indeed to all humanity, that l

Jason Pyrz Phil. 283 A&V: Business Dr. Bryan October 20, 1997 Jason Pyrz Page 1 of 8 All three are in practice around the world, a person can be only one of them, and each is morally right and morally wrong depending on how you look at it. I am speaking of course of the three major behavioral theories; Egoism, Utilitarianism, and Respect for Persons. Each of them is justified within itself, however when viewed from another theories' perspective, it may be morally wrong. To better und

Phil-229 Trinity College In his book, The Paradoxes of Delusion, Louis Sass attempts to rebut two of most prevalent beliefs of the schizophrenic person. He argues that by viewing the schizophrenic delusions in light of solipsism, a philosophy of existence, the schizophrenic may seem far more understandable. Through his comparison of the schizophrenic and solipsist realities, Sass explains that not only is schizophrenia understandable, but that there exists within the structure of sch

Chaminade University Cloning - Is the World Ready? Steven Ware PH100 12 March 1998 Submitted to: DR. Mark Brasher PH100 - Intro. To Philosophy Cloning - Is the World Ready? Human Genetic Cloning - it has been titled "Breakthrough of the Year", in my opinion, it should be titled "Confusion of the Year", as this is the hottest debate in the Senate to date(BBC). This particular science is the creation of liv

Standpoint Theory I. Introduction A) Dating back to 1800's Standpoint theory claims that social groups within which we are located powerfully shape what we experience and know as well as how we understand and communicate with ourselves, others and the world. II. Locations in Cultural Life A) Recall that symbolic interaction claims that we are socialized into cultural meanings and values that pre-exist any individual. B) Mead noted that there is a common social world, and his theory em

Marx's And Weber's Views on Capitalism Name: Gil Petersil Teacher: George Turski Course #: "Wealth and Power Realities" 325-BXH-03-39 Date: Monday, May 12, 1998 During the nineteenth century, Karl Marx and Max Weber were two of the most influential sociologist. Both their views on the rise of capitalism have many similarities and differences. They believe that capitalism is relatively new to the modern world. Their views differ on the rise of capitalism. Regardless of Marx and We


You do not have to be a true objectivist Objectivism holds that society functions best when individuals pursue their self-interests. According to Ayn Rand, human understanding and acceptance of reality form the basis of judgment and values. Human beings must live for themselves, neither sacrificing any part of their natures or goals to other people, nor bending others' wills to their own. In this scheme, love is achieved fully only by those individuals who possess the highest self-estee

The Contention Outline Thesis Statement: Animal Experimentation is unnecessary and unneeded within the United States Thus I present the Following contentions to support my thesis: 1) Human beings do not have a prima facie right to use other animals, if they are unwilling to do so upon either them selves or other human beings. A) From Nedim C. Buyukmihinci V.M.D. "Over the last couple of decades, I slowly have eliminated my overt and intentional involvement in the exploitation of n

The Two Faces of Meursault At the climax of The Stranger, Meursault dies for his killing of an Arab. Often have we considered this an act of absurdity; he could have made some plea for mercy, could have attempted to explain himself to the court. But Meursault did none of these things, thus affirming the fact that his actions were indeed absurd. Just as the text contains so many dualities of meaning in its dialogue, so too does Meursault contain a duality of philosophical belief. I propos

Important points in Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s famous "I Have a Dream" speech. -Black slaves had been freed by the Emancipation Proclamation, but still bear the burdens; physically and emotionally, of the "withering injustice" of slavery. This was a great step . . . -But the Negro is still not free from; segregation, discrimination, poverty, and exile in their own country. -Blacks came to the speech to "cash a check" of life, liberty, and the pursuit of

It is always present in you. You can use it anyway you want. -- Lao-tzu Taoism is one of the two great philosophical and religious traditions that originated in China. The other philosophy native to China is Confucianism. Both Taoism and Confucianism began at about the same time, around the sixth century B.C. China's third great religion, Buddhism, came to China from India around the second century of the common era. Together, these three faiths have shaped Chinese life and thought

Abortion Law and its Issues Chris Stone ID. Number : 97107692 October 10, 1997 Philosophy 1100A97 Prof. N. Brett In 1988, the Supreme Court

The freedoms of the Canadian people, as guaranteed in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms states in section 1 that ". . . guarantees the rights and freedoms set out in it subject only to such reasonable limits . . . ." This means that specific freedoms, though guaranteed in section two of the Charter as "fundamental freedoms" are subordinate to limitations as the government sees fit, unlike the freedoms of the United States constitutional freedoms, which have no limits put on them, a

Justice Justice. What is justice? In this world where many people look out only for themselves, justice can be considered the happiness of oneself. But because selfish men do not always decide our standards in society, to find a definition, society should look at the opinions of many. Just as in the modern society to which we live, where everyone feels justice has a different meaning, the society of Plato also struggled with the same problem. In this paper, I will look into the Republic, o

Friedrich Nietzsche's career as a philosopher and writer is nothing short of monumental. His criticism of organized religion and support of nihilism are key characteristics of his work, and his books are unified by one simple fact: Nietzsche himself wrote them. While this revelation may not seem profound in any sense, Nietzsche's view of his vocation as an author is the source of inspiration, complication and, indeed, the very root of his philosophy. Nietzsche's use of literary technique resu

Absolute Understanding [This essay was my first in Philosophy 201. I have another that is similar but different which I wrote at the end of the term. Read both.] Absolute Understanding An elephant was brought to a group of blind men who had never encountered such an animal before. One felt a leg and reported that an elephant is a great living pillar. Another felt the trunk and reported that an elephant is a great snake. Another felt a tusk and reported that an elephant is like a s

Truth The Only Truth Existing [This is my second and last essay of Philosophy 201]-RJ The Only Truth Existing "We are, then, faced with a quite simple alternative: Either we deny that there is here anything that can be called truth - a choice that would make us deny what we experience most profoundly as our own being; or we must look beyond the realm of our "natural" experience for a validation of our certainty." A famous philosopher, Rene Descartes, once stated, "I am, [therefore]

Philosophy : Workfare "Society's Restraint to Social Reform" Of the many chatted words in the social reform vocabulary of Canadians today, the term workfare seems to stimulate much debate and emotion. Along with the notions of self-sufficiency, employability enhancement, and work disincentives, it is the concept of workfare that causes the most tension between it's government and business supporters and it's anti-poverty and social justice critics. In actuality, workfare is a con

Henry David Thoreau The Great Conservationist, Visionary, and Humanist He spent his life in voluntary poverty, enthralled by the study of nature. Two years, in the prime of his life, were spent living in a shack in the woods near a pond. Who would choose a life like this? Henry David Thoreau did, and he enjoyed it. Who was Henry David Thoreau, what did he do, and what did others think of his work? Henry David Thoreau was born in Concord, Massachusetts on July 12, 1817 ("Thoreau" 9

Mill's Utilitarianism: Sacrifice the innocent for the common good? When faced with a moral dilemma, utilitarianism identifies the appropriate considerations, but offers no realistic way to gather the necessary information to make the required calculations. This lack of information is a problem both in evaluating the welfare issues and in evaluating the consequentialist issues which utilitarianism requires be weighed when making moral decisions. Utilitarianism attempts to solve both of t

Charles Darwin And Imperialism England went through dramatic changes in the 19th century. English culture, socio-economic structure and politics where largely influenced by the principles of science. Many social expressions occurred due to these changes. Transformations which categorized this time period could be observed in social institutions; for instance: the switch from popular Evangelicalism to atheism, emergence of feminism and the creation of new political ideologies (Libera

Carl Orff's philosophies in Musci Education While Carl Orff is a very seminal composer of the 20th century, his greatest success and influence has been in the field of Music Education. Born on July 10th in Munich, Germany in 1895, Orff refused to speak about his past almost as if he were ashamed of it. What we do know, however, is that Orff came from a Bavarian family who was very active in the German military. His father's regiment band would often play through some of the young Orff's

Kant: the Universal Law Formation of the Categorical Imperative Kantian philosophy outlines the Universal Law Formation of the Categorical Imperative as a method for determining morality of actions. This formula is a two part test. First, one creates a maxim and considers whether the maxim could be a universal law for all rational beings. Second, one determines whether rational beings would will it to be a universal law. Once it is clear that the maxim passes both prongs of the test, th

Philosophy, Hume An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals What is a moral? This is a question that has plagued philosophers for many years. Is it possible to have a set of universal morals? There are many questions that surround the mystery of morals. They seem to drive our every action. We base our decisions on what is right and what is wrong. But what is it that actually determines what is right and what is wrong? Is it our sense of reason? Is it our sense of sentiment? T

Science - Philosophy Common Pagan Rituals and Beliefs Paganism is an ancient type of religion which has quite an inauspicious reputation today. There are many types of paganism, most date back thousands of years, which include Wicca, Witchcraft, Paganism, and a few other lesser known and practiced variations. Yet all of these religions are similar and share common beliefs. Wicca is the most common of these, as it also demonstrates the shared belief of doing good that is common to most

As Aristotle viewed the world around him, he observed that things are moving and changing in certain ways. Aristotle discovered that certain things cause other things, which in turn cause something else. Aristotle believed that an infinite chain of c The first evidence that Aristotle viewed was the world around him. He observed that everything is in motion, and that one motion causes another motion and so on. Much like billiard balls on a pool table. One ball hits another ball, that ball m

subject = philosophy title = can we debate art? papers = Can we debate art? When I first began thinking about this topic, it seemed as if it was a fairly simple subject. Of course we could debate art, critics and the average citizen have done it for years debating over which pieces are their favorites. As I began to think about the subject and received feedback from the class, this topic became infinitely more complicated with questions like: what is art, could we saw that one person

Can computers ever be intelligent? Hollywood would like to think so. Ever since the early 1960s, free thinking machines have entered the mainstream of Science-Fiction films, from the evil "Hal" from 2001: A Space Odyssey to the elegant "Data" in Star T to Turing's criterion. In 1950, Alan Turing devised a test to determine intelligence of a digital computer in his historic essay, Computing Machinery and Intelligence . His name for the test was the "Imitation game," which was later named

The majority of authors reviewed in this course attempt to either describe an ideal state or to advise the reader on matters of ruling. This provides for interesting reading and speculation and may be helpful for politicians, but not for the majority of people. Most of us will likely never hold any political office. For us these works are of questionable value as guides for action. Plato, Aristotle, and Augustine were all wealthy men and this is reflected in their writing. Both the Republic

Philosophy is a subject that can take many twists and turns before it finds an answer to a general question. Sometimes, an answer is still left unfound. Philosophy, in its broadest terms, can be described as the systematic pursuit of knowledge and human excellence. What we are concerned with is knowledge. Many people have theories of knowledge. Amongst them, there are two we will be looking at, Descartes and Plato. We will examine Descartes' epistemology in Meditations on First Philosophy and Pl

John Locke: The Empiricist Theory of Knowledge: Summary Understanding and knowledge is what makes man superior to all other beings according to John Locke. However, the bounds of this understanding and knowledge are questionable. Is some knowledge innate? How certain can we be about beliefs and the knowledge we have? John Locke attempts to give some insight as to the answers of these questions in his work, The Empiricist Theory of Knowledge. John Locke does not believe in innate knowle

In his book, The Paradoxes of Delusion, Louis Sass attempts to rebut two of most prevalent beliefs of the schizophrenic person. He argues that by viewing the schizophrenic delusions in light of solipsism, a philosophy of existence, the schizophrenic may seem far more understandable. Through his comparison of the schizophrenic and solipsist realities, Sass explains that not only is schizophrenia understandable, but

Trinity College Ancient Greek Philosophy Paper 2-Platonic Dialogues October 7, 1997 The nature of a thing called love has perplexed and confounded humans for thousand of years. Even Socrates himself, believed by many to be among the greatest thinkers of civilization as we know it, entertained the notion of Eros. In several of the Platonic Dialogues, we find wise Socrates satisfying his contemporary audiences' questions regarding Eros, and in doing so, draws countless parallels to o

Plato Plato was born in, 427 B.C., in the city of Athens to an upper-class family. His parents were Ariston and the other was Pericton. Plato's real name was Aristocles. He was called Platon due to the fact that he had a broad forehead and broad shoulders. Plato only recorded two facts, about himself, by himself. They were that he was present in the court room at the trial of Socrates, and that he was one of the friends that offered to pay any fine that may be imposed on Socrate

Abstract John Locke and Thomas Hobbes lived during a very turbulent century in Britain. Both men were great thinkers of their time, but held very different opinions on politics and many other facets of life and man. Both of these men were theorists on natural law and social contracts, but this is where the resemblance between the two ends. The time in which these two men lived can account for the pessimistic views of Hobbes on the nature of man and the ideal form of government. Locke, howev

Morals and Traditions Liana Raquel Prieto (December 1997) Abortion is ethically permissible. When we are considering this distant land the abortion debate takes on new dimensions but these in no way alter my original premise. The people of this land are not committing a moral wrong by performing late-term abortions, as they have been for thousands of years, in order to secure the salvation of the entire populace. This culture's tradition, regardless of our own morals, is ethically permissi

Dr. K: Physician-Assisted Suicide & the Death Penalty Liana R. Prieto (November 1997) We are faced with a case involving two morally disputed issues that involve life and death. Questions will arise as to the morality of physician-assisted suicide, and though I will address them, they are essentially irrelevant in this case because it is presently illegal. The morality of the death penalty will also be called into question and I will establish that it the just and necessary punishment in t

Euthanasia and assisted suicide are subjects of great debate due to the opposing views taken by people on either side of the debate. The term euthanasia has virtually abolished the term assisted suicide. Different ethical issues are at play when discussing euthanasia, those who are pro euthanasia believe that a terminally ill person has the right to seek the help of another for the purpose of helping that person to kill him or her self. Those who oppose euthanasia believe that more harm than goo

Why One Sin is Worse than Another Most Christians these days see every sin as equally bad. In other words, no one sin is worse or should draw worse punishment than another. In Dante's The Inferno, however, this is not the case. In The Inferno, the deeper one delves into Hell, the worse the sin that has been committed. The punishments that the souls incur are representative of the sins they committed in their corporeal state of being. Sins that affect others are considered worse then t

The Relationship Between Plato's Theory of Forms and the Immortality of the Soul Preface In the Phaedo, Plato set out to show many things, including that the Soul is Immortal. Through the aid of the Theory of Forms Plato proved that the soul is immortal. This paper will show that Plato fell short in determining the fact that the soul is immortal. This will be shown, by analyzing the arguments that Plato used to show this fact. It will become clear that the arguments fal

Man in the State of Nature Man's transition from the state of nature into society is a topic that has been discussed by many philosophers in the past centuries. What is the state of nature for Rousseau and how does man go from it into society? I will explain and occasionally criticize how this happens according to Rousseau. Man was originally a sentient and feeling being. He instinctively and intrinsically knew compassion, mercy, and pity. He helped his fellow man and animals every cha

Bioethics encompasses every ethical question relating and pertaining to medicine and the health of living things. Everything from pediatrics to nursing, from euthanasia to birth-pain killer, from the debate of abortion to the law of malpractice is covered by the term bioethics. Bioethics is a very broad, very extensive category of ethics. The concept of a separate set of ideas called bioethics first began in 1846. While it stayed very small, it did experience a resurgence after World

Under the Canadian Criminal Code, section 241(b) makes the aiding or abetting a person to commit suicide an offense. Under this provision of the code, an argument can be made that medical doctors who follow a patients "do not resuscitate"(DNR) order are assisting the person in ending their life. However this is not the case, a person in this instance is considered "to be master of his/her own body, and he/she may, if he/she be of sound mind, expressly prohibit the performance of life-saving

SOCIETY IS WRONG! There is a grave matter affecting all students these days. Whether you're still in grade school or in a post-secondary institution. The brainwashing that takes place over us is undeniable! And it's not the teachers in which I am talking about. IT'S YOUR PARENTS! Throughout life you look at your parents as a lifeline. They supply money, clothes, and shelter. This is not them just being nice to you. It's there way of staying in your good graces. As students, we should b

Why Does Socrates claim that no person ever desires what is bad? The arguments to support the claim that Socrates believes that no man ever desires what is bad may be found in the Meno. In this conversation, Socrates and his fellow man Meno are in search of true knowledge (or the form) of virtue. As their discussion follows that winding convoluted path that is common to Socratic debate, Socrates exposes a feasible argument regarding basic human nature. Meno makes a claim that virtue i