Chemistry Essays & Term Papers

180 total

EFFECTS OF CATNIP Purpose: To determine the effect of catnip on cats. Materials: 2 cats Cat Nip 5 cat toys (balls) - 2 with catnip inside; 3 without 1 cat nip mouse 1 Scratch Pad Procedure: 1. I sat with my cat and the toy balls. The balls were bounced one at a time, allowing time for the cat to do what she pleased with them. I

(8 pages w/ double space size 12 Arial, not including Bib.) Aluminum is one of a number of soft metals that scientists call "poor" metals. It can be shaped and twisted into any form. It can be rolled into thick plates for armored tanks or into thin foil for chewing gum wrappers. It may be drawn into a wire or made into cans. Aluminum is a generally popular metal because it does not rust and it resists wear from weather and chemicals. (Bowman, 391) Aluminum is an element. Its atom

THE RADON PROBLEM You can't see radon. And you can't smell or taste it, but it may very well be a problem in your home. It is estimated to cause many thousands of deaths each year. Radon is a cancer-causing, radioactive gas, and when you breathe air containing the gas, you can get lung cancer. In fact, radon has now been declared the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States today. Only smoking causes more lung cancer deaths. If you smoke and your home has high radon l

Why nuclear fusion is so cool....... For a fusion reaction to take place, the nuclei, which are positively charged, must have enough kinetic energy to overcome their electrostatic force of repulsion. This can occur either when one nucleus is accelerated to high energies by an accelerating device, or when the energies of both nuclei are raised by the application of very high temperature. The latter method, referred to the application of thermonuclear fusion, is the source of a lot

Chemistry: Water Pollution Phosphates in Water Pollution Phosphates may be created by substituting some or all of the hydrogen of a phosphoric acid by metals. Depending on the number of hydrogen atoms that are replaced, the resulting compound is described as a primary, secondary or tertiary phosphate. Primary and secondary phosphates contain hydrogen and are acid salts. Secondary and tertiary phosphates, with the exception of those of sodium, potassium and ammonium are insoluble

The Chemistry of Natural Water INTRODUCTION The purpose of this experiment is to explore the hardness of the water on campus. Hard water has been a problem for hundreds of years. One of the earliest references to the hardness or softness of water is in Hippocrates discourse on water quality in Fifth century B.C. Hard water causes many problems in both in the household and in the industrial world. One of the largest problems with hard water is that it tends to leave a residue wh

Sodium Life could not exist without compounds of sodium. These compounds hold water in body tissues, and a severe deficiency of sodium can cause death. Blood contains sodium compounds in solution. Sodium compounds are used in industry in the manufacture of chemicals and pharmaceuticals, in metallurgy, in sodium vapor lamps, and in the production of hundreds of every day products. One of the most common sodium compounds is table salt, or sodium chloride. In its pure form sodium is a silv

subject = Chemistry title = Lead papers = Lead is a lustrous, silvery metal that tarnishes in the presence of air and becomes a dull bluish gray. Soft and flexible, it has a low melting point (327 °C). Its chemical symbol, Pb, is from plumbum, the Latin word for waterworks, because of lead's extensive use in ancient water pipes. Itsatomic number is 82; its atomic weight is 207.19. Lead and lead compounds can be highly toxic when eaten or inhaled. Although lead is absorbed very

subject = Chemistry title = Platinum papers = Please put your paper here. Platinum is a relatively rare, chemically inert, metallic element. It symbol is Pt, atomic number is 78, and its atomic weight is 195.09. Platinum is one of the heaviest substances known. One cubic foot of Platinum weighs 21 times as much as a cubic foot of water. A grayish-white metal, Platinum has a melting point of 1772 degrees C and a realatively high boiling point of 3827 degrees C. It has a high fusing po

title = The discovery of Fluorine The isolation of fluorine had challenged chemist for many years, taking the lives of at least two scientists in the process. Fluorine receives its name from the Latin, fluo, meaning flow. The first real attempt to free fluorine, was done by a chemist by the name of Humphyry Davy, between the years of (1811-1813). He first tried to liberate the element by using the chemical methods, but this failed. He then went on to try and electrolysis process using

Nitrogen This is the story of nitrogen, a significant element, a powerful element, and an often misunderstood or underestimated element. Nitrogen is one of the many elements on the Periodic Table. Like all the rest, nitrogen has its own set of unique properties, compounds, and features. This element plays an important role in modern technology and science. Although the average person may not know it, nitrogen is responsible for many things we take for granted. This element is especially i

How many people were killed or injured in WWI due to chemical weapons? According to the Chemical Weapons Convention web page 1,400,000 people were affected by chemical weapons. The most serious casualties were in Russia with 475,000 injuries and 56,000 killed. The problems of chemical warfare are upon us yet again. Saddam Hussein is currently trying to avoid weapon inspections by the United Nations. After it has been discovered that he used weapons during Desert Storm, can we risk conf

Gayle Adkinson Director of Operations Adkinson Chemical Corporation Dear Mrs. Adkinson: A sample of copper has been produced as requested. We are pleased to report that the most copper has been produced through the most efficient method. But we regrettably to report that an accident had occurred during the process (which you will not be billed for). This accident led to a series of investigations to weed out incompetent workers. The remaining technicians were the best and most ca

Why Xenon Doesn't React Xenon is a rare, colorless, odorless, tasteless, chemically unreactive gas. It is one of the inert gas elements found in group 0 of the periodic table. Xenon was long considered incapable of chemical reaction, but in 1962 Neil Bartlett, a Canadian chemist, reported synthesis of xenon hexafluoroplatinate, XePtF6, a true compound. Before 1962, people thought that xenon and other noble gases were unable to form compounds. Now, xenon's reported compounds are sodium perx

In about 1900 it was theorized that the atom was composed of smaller particles. An atom is actually a system consisting of a cloud of negatively charged particles called electrons surrounding a nucleus, composed of positively charged protons and of neutrons, which have no charge. In the 1960s scientists discovered that protons and neutrons are composed of even smaller particles than first believed. The term quarks came about from an American physicist named Gell-Mann. He borrowed the term f

The six chemical elements that are known as alkali metals are lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), cesium (Cs), and the extremely rare radioactive substance called francium (Fr). Cesium and Francium are the most reactive elements in this group. The word alkali comes from the Arabic word al-qili, meaning plant ashes. Plant ashes were the first source of alkali metal compounds. The alkali metals occupy the first column of the periodic table of the elemen

Factors of Parasitic Virulence ABSTRACT Why do some parasites kill the host they depend upon while others coexist with their host? Two prime factors determine parasitic virulence: the manner in which the parasite is transmitted, and the evolutionary history of the parasite and its host. Parasites which have colonized a new host species tend to be more virulent than parasites which have coevolved with their hosts. Parasites which are transmitted horizontal

Properties Properties of Chlorine Symbol Cl Atomic Number 17 Atomic Weight 35.453 Group in Periodic Table VII A Density at 32° F (0° C) 3.21 Boiling Point -30.3° F (-34.6° C) Melting Point (under pressure) -149.8° F (-101° C) This element Chlorine is a poisonous, corrosive, greenish-yellow gas that has a sharp, suffocating odor and is two and half times heavier than air. The symbol of this element is C1; in Atomic Number are number 1

In the beginning of the 1800s John Dalton, an English scientist did work some work on gases, which lead him to the creation of a complex system of symbols for all known elements at the time. He took all the information he had collected, along with the Laws of Conservation of Mass, Definite Composition and Multiple Proportions and updated Aristotle's theory of matter with the Atomic Theory of Matter, which stated: - All matter is composed of tiny, indivisible particles called atoms. - Atoms of

Magnesium is a fairly abundant silver-white metallic metal, and is not found pure in nature. Magnesium (Mg) combines with most acids and non-metals, including but not limited to nitrogen, and has a melting point of 65 degrees Celsius, and a boiling point of 1,090 degrees Celsius. Magnesium was discovered by the English Chemist, Sir Humphry Davy, in the year 1808. Magnesium falls under the group "alkaline earth metals" and has a density of 1.73 grams per centimeter cubed at 20 degrees Celsius.

Carbon is the basis for all life on earth. This essay will explain the role of carbon dioxide in v arious parts of the carbon cycle. This essay will examin three main, and important parts of the carbon cycle, starting by explaning the role of the ocean in obsorbing cabon. Next this essay will examin the human influences on the carbon cycle and human production of carbon dioxide. Thiedly this essay will explain what controls the carbon dioxide concentration. The ocean holds a vast a

Anti-Matter Introduction Ordinary matter has negatively charged electrons circling a positively charged nuclei. Anti-matter however has positively charged electrons - positrons - orbiting a nuclei with a negative charge - anti-protons. Only anti-protons and positrons are able to be produced at this time, but scientists in Switzerland have begun a series of experiments which they believe will lead to the creation of the first anti-matter element -- Anti-Hydrogen. (Encarta 99) The Research Ear

Plutonium Plutonium, symbol Pu, is a radioactive metallic element. It has an atomic number of 94, and it is used in nuclear reactors and weapons. The element is one of the transuranium elements in the actinide series of the periodic table. Isotopes of plutonium were first prepared and studied by the American chemist Glenn T. Seaborg and his associates at the University of California at Berkeley in 1941. Trace amounts of the element have since been found in uranium ores, but plutonium is pr

Terbium What is Terbium? How and what is Terbium used for in everyday human life? Where is Terbium's origination point? Many people have never even heard of the element Terbium and you may ask why not? But all these questions and more will be revealed within the body of this essay. Terbium was discovered in a small Sweden town called Ytterby in the year of 1843, by a man named Carl G. Mosander. But at this time it could not be confirmed as an element, and it took 30 years for it to be

Radium is a silver-white, highly radioactive element. It's atomic number is 88, and it is the heaviest alkali earth metal, having a mass number of 226.025 (See Figure 1). Radium has at least twenty six isotopes, and all are radioactive (Shriver 1995). Since radium is chemically similar to calcium and magnesium, it is absorbed by the bones of animals. Once in the bones, it emits alpha, beta, and gamma rays (Shriver 1993). These rays shrink or destroy tissues and they are the reason radium is so h

12/04/99 Applied Chemistry Research-Caffeine Graham Cousins Caffeine, a odorless slightly bitter substance that is in most caffeinated beverages. Caffeine is present in about 4% of tea leaves and in coffee. Caffeine contains two other alkaloids, theobromine and theophylline. These two relax the muscles while the caffeine stimulates the heart and respiratory systems. The caffeine in a substance is a stimulant of central nervous system, cardiac musc

The Role of Computers in Chemistry Over the last few decades, the technology of computers has improved in leaps and bounds. Computers have become faster and easier to use, taking milliseconds to do the calculations which once had to be done by hand. There are several areas of chemistry where computers have played a significant role, a few of them I will discuss. In synthetic chemistry it is very important to know what compounds you have created. Chemists rely on spectroscopic techniques to

Abstract The percentage of water in Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate was found. Copper Sulfate was heated in a crucible to evaporate the water. The mass was weighed to find the difference before and after heating. By comparing these masses, the percentage of water was found. The percentage of water was found to be 34%. Theory Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate or CuSO + 5 H O is a solid compound. To find the percentage of water in it, the Copper Sulfate was heated inside a crucible. To extrac

This article is about a problem with the chemistry in a large area of the Gulf of Mexico. Basically, the problem is that every spring oxygen levels in the deepest parts of the water become so depleted that most local wildlife is suffocated or flees. This part of the Gulf of Mexico is called the hypoxic zone (obviously meaning low oxygen zone). The cause of the problem is the Mississippi River, which deposits 580 cubic kilometers of water to the Gulf every year. Not only is the Mississippi

Dopamine As the chemical responsible for the pleasurable sensations felt by the human brain, dopamine has been found to be active in many aspects of every day life. Any physiological action that receives a positive feedback, such as a handshake, a kiss, or the use of a drug, can cause the level of dopamine activity in the brain to increase. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that relays messages from one neuron to the next. Through axons, neurons influence neurological act

Helium by I ain't telling you!!! Pierre Janssen discovered helium in the sun in 1868. Janssen originally thought it was sodium, but Joseph Norman Lockyer noticed that it didn't correspond to the D1 and D2 lines of sodium. He named it the "D3" line. Lockyer said that the element D3 was unknown on Earth. He and Edward Franklin concluded on the name Helios after the Greek god of the sun. Helium is found everywhere in space. All natural gases have at least a little bit helium in

Titration of an Acid with a Base Jeff Barker Chem. A-1 Wednesday, May 17, 2000 Introduction: When you combine strong acids and bases, perfect ionization is achieved. This means that all that is left after the reactions are water and the spectator ion. The definition of an acid is "a substance that produces hydronium ions when dissolved in water." Acids have a pH range from 1-6. Bases release hydroxide ions when dissolved in water, with a pH level of 8-14. There are different s

Recrystallization Of An Impure Compound Lori Benkoski Organic Chemistry 12-11-97 Purpose/Question: The purpose of this lab is to recrystallize acetanilide by refluxing the substance, filtering it out, and comparing the original mass to the mass of the pure crystals. Equipment: Buchner Funnel 2.0 g acetanilide Charcoal filter paper Boiling chips (Boileezers) filtering flask reflux condenser iron ring

Ammonium Nitrate Ammonium Nitrate (AN), NH4NO3, has a molecular weight of 80.05. It does not occur in nature. This white crystalline solid was first described in 1659 by Gauber who called it Nitram flammens because it produced a yellow flame when burned due to traces of sodium in his samples. Today, AN is the most widely produced ammonium compound in the world. According to the International Fertilizer Development Center, the current production of AN exceeds 4.5 Million Tons per year in North A

Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev (1834-1907) Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev was Russian chemist, known for his development of the periodic table of elements. This is a table created to arrange the elements by their atomic number. Mendeleyev was born in Tobolsk, Siberia. He studied chemistry at the University of Saint Petersburg, until 1859 when he was sent to learn at the University of Heidelberg. Where he became aquatinted with the Italian chemist Stanislao Cannizzaro, whose views on ato

The element that I have chosen in . The people who discovered it are known as Sir William Ramsay and Morris William Travers. Sir William Ramsay and Morris William Travers were looking for new gases in the air when the discovered krypton (Kr). They called it krypton which is Greek for 'hidden'. Ramsay and Travers discovered this gaseous element in 1898. They discovered it by collecting residues that were left after their experiment. While looking for new gases they mainly found oxy

The Scientific Significance of Buckyballs by ??????????????? Chemistry ??? Section ??? General Chemistry Prof. ????????????? Spring 199? Until the mid-1980's, elemental carbon was believed only to exhibit two main allotropic forms, diamond and graphite, both of which are covalent-network solids. However, Nobel Prize winning research conducted in the United States and Europe has confirmed the existence of a third previously unknown form of carbon- buckminsterfullerene (C60). The

The Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect occurs when gases such as methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide and CFCs trap heat in the atmosphere by acting as a pane of glass in a car. ?The glass? lets the sun light in to make heat but when the heat tries to get out the gases absorb the heat. Holding this heat in causes heat waves, droughts and climate changes which could alter our way of living. The main gases that cause the greenhouse effect are water vapor

Pioneers In Ozone Research Win Nobel Prize Three fellows of the American Geophysical Union were awarded the Nobel prize in the area of atmospheric research by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1995. The honored professors were: Paul Crutzen of the Max-Plank Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany; Mario Molina of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and F. Sherwood Rowland of the University of California, Irvine. The steps they took to gain an understanding

Mercury's atomic number is 80. It's mass is 201. Its density at 20 degrees Celsius is 13.456 g/cm cubed. It's silvery-white and flows very easily. It conducts electricity fairly well, but is a poor conductor of heat. It was known to Chinese and Hindus before 2000 BC and was found in Egyptian tombs dating back to 1500 BC. It was named after Mercury, the Roman messenger to the gods(Hermes in Greek mythology). It is a violent poison to humans. It acts as a cumulative poison because there are

Light By David Carlson Light is emitted from many different sources. It comes from the sun, the moon, flashlights, light bulbs, and other things. It is essential to our everyday life. Without it we would stumble around and have no clue what is going on around it. The main source of light on Earth is the Sun. Without it their would be no life on Earth. Light travels at 186,282 miles per SECOND. Nothing can travel faster than this. According to Einstein this is the cosmic "Spe

Why is knowledge of chemistry important to biology? Maier, Scott Advanced biology 10/7/99 Biology is the study of all living things and chemistry is the study of chemicals and their interactions. So, how are they related? Our bodies are made up of hundreds and hundreds of chemicals. We just don’t think of them like that. Did you ever wonder how your body turns food into energy? It’s a chemical reaction. That’s chemistry involved in biology. Our bodies have hundreds more ch

What would the world be like without chemistry? In some way it could be good and in others it would be bad. We would be without so many good and also bad things if we didn t have it and we can t leave either one out. I mean without chemistry we wouldn t be able to have such a good chemistry class, or such a good teacher. The bad things I think I could do without and I think other people could too, but I don t think I could live without the good which usually includes the bad with it. So no

Nuclear Chemistry and Nuclear Weapons The field of nuclear chemistry is so broad and varied that there is no universally accepted definition for it. This is because it is a subject, with its origins springing from areas such as physics, biology, and chemistry. Nuclear chemistry has contributed to numerous important discoveries in our knowledge of the nucleus and has also provided advancements in medicine and the use of nuclear weapons. We use nuclear chemistry in the medical field where rad

Becoming a chemist takes a lot of hard work and discipline. One very importan aspect of being a chemist is English, Comunication is of the utter most importance (Murphy). As well as having good communication skills, you also need a lot of patience. However, there are many other qualities you will need such as an excellent learning ability and mathematical skills. You will also need to be able to preceive concepts or objects. Once you get into college you need to know what kind of degree

Why nuclear fusion is so cool....... For a fusion reaction to take place, the nuclei, which are positively charged, must have enough kinetic energy to overcome their electrostatic force of repulsion. This can occur either when one nucleus is accelerated to high energies by an accelerating device, or ... 14854 bytes BigNerds.com - free essays,free term papers, student travel, and free stuff ... . One less noted advancement the eras brought is a considerable amount of exciting and forewarni

Becoming a chemist takes a lot of hard work and discipline. One very importan aspect of being a chemist is English, Comunication is of the utter most importance (Murphy). As well as having good communication skills, you also need a lot of patience. However, there are many other qualities you will need such as an excellent learning ability and mathematical skills. You will also need to be able to preceive concepts or objects. Once you get into college you need to know what kind

John Dalton was born in 1766 and died in 1844. Around 1803 he developed the first atomic theory of matter. He was a meteorologist and was very important to study of chemistry. Dalton discovered the three basic laws of chemistry. The law of conservation of mass, The law of definite proportions, and The law of multiple proportions. The law of conservation of mass was first stated by Antoine Lavoisier in 1789. It was a milestone in the development in the development of modern chemistry. It

The molecular structure hypothesis - that a molecule is a collection of atoms linked by a network of bonds - was forged in the crucible of nineteenth century experimental chemistry. It has continued to serve as the principal means of ordering and classifying the observations of chemistry. The difficulty with this hypothesis was that it was not related directly to quantum mechanics, the physics which governs the motions of the nuclei and electrons that make up the atoms and the bonds. Indeed th

CHEMISTRY IS THE STUDY OF MATTER ANDTHE CHANGES IT UNDERGOES. THESE CHANGES OCCUR WHEN THE ATOMS OF A SUBSTANCE ARE REARRANGED TOMAKE A NEW SUBSTANCE. THIS IS CLASSIFIED AS A CHEMICAL REACTION. BUT BEFORE YOU GET INTO A CHEMICAL REACTION YOU MUST LEARN ABOUT WHAT MAKES UP A CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE. mATTER IS VERY IMPORTANT IN THE SUBJECT OF CHEMISTRY. MATTER IS ANYTHING THAT TAKES UP SPACE. MATTER CANNOT BE CREATED NOR DESTROYED PHISICALLY OR CHEMICALLY. ANOTHER CRITICAL OBJECT IN HEMISRTY I