Biology Essays & Term Papers

212 total

The Lymphatic System The lymphatic system is a collection of ducts organs and tissues, which collect excess fluid or lymph from your body and transport it back to the heart. The lymphatic system also helps to defend the body against infection. Lymph vessels of the neck These lymph vessels drain tissue fluid, or lymph, from the head and neck. The fluid is filtered through lymph nodes in order to remove foreign particles before it re-enters the bloodstream. This helps to defend your b

BACTERIA ( Gr. bakterion, "little staff"), group of microscopic, unicellular organisms that lack a distinct nucleus and that usually reproduce by cell division. are tiny, ranging from 1 to 10 micrometers (1 micrometer equals 1/25,000 in), and are extremely variable in the ways they obtain energy and nourishment. They can be found in nearly all environments-from air, soil, water, and ice to hot springs; even the hydrothermal vents on the deep ocean floor are the home of sulfur-metabolizing bacter

quantities of material with which to work. The process of engineering a DNA fragment into a vector is called "cloning," because multiple copies of an identical molecule are produced. Another way, recently discovered, of produsufficient cing many identical copies of a particular DNA fragment is polymerase chain reaction. This method is rapid and avoids the need for cloning DNA into a vector. Therapy. form of genetic engineering involves supplying a functional gene to cells lacking that function,

Archaebacteria, simple organisms that resemble ordinary bacteria in that they lack a well-formed nucleus and can therefore be characterized as procaryotes in the classification of living organisms. Their biochemistry differs in important ways from that of other bacteria, however, and some biologists place them in a kingdom of their own. According to these theories, archaebacteria may be ancestral to the main cellular body of eucaryotes, or organisms with well-formed cell nuclei, whereas ordinary

Bacteria comes from the Greek word meaning "Little Staff" (Infopedia) (or more appropriately "Staph") which most likely refers to some form of Bacillus, but what is bachteria and why do we need it. When most people think of the idea of little crawlies on their skin, they pretty much freak (See Jackie Plank), but we need to see is the difference between the pathogens and the helpful bacteria, the good and the bad, the yin and yang of monerans. Koch (1843-1910) is often considered the founder

The second law of thermodynamics states that energy transitions are imperfect. No matter what, energy is lost. In machines an 75% loss of energy is considered average. In biological reactions there is usually a 60% loss. Since all reactions are constantly losing a percentage of the energy they give, it is necessary to have a constant intake of energy to make up for what is lost. This intake of energy helps life to remain ordered. If something disrupts that order, entropy begins to take eff

Big Brown Bat Eptesicus fucus Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata (organisms that possess a structure called a notochord) Class: Mammalia (3 middle ear bones; hair; and the production of milk by modified sweat glands called mammary glands.) Order: Chiroptera (winged) Family: Vespertilionidae (This is the largest family of bats: it includes 35 genera and 318 species! With this many species there are exceptions to almost every generalization about this

Frogs Frogs are amphibians in the order Anura. The order Anura is broken down into twenty-two different families of frogs and toads. Although they belong to the same order, frogs and toads are different in a lot of ways. Some of the more distinct differences are their skin and where they live. Frogs usually have smooth, moist skin, and toads usually have dry, warty-looking skin. Frogs spend most of their lives in or near water, and toads spend more time on land. Amphibian means "d

A debate is currently raging throughout the world, from the halls of the United States Congress and the President's Oval Office to the United Nations and the World Health Organization. The issue: the cloning of human beings. Ever since researchers in Scotland cloned an adult sheep named Dolly over a year ago, the issue of applying this technology to reproducing human duplicates has been paramount in scientific and social circles. The debate is not merely confined to scientists; everyone fr

Close Encounters With the Effects of Time Dilation How does it feel to be going speeds near that of the speed of light? What is it like to return to Earth to find that your best friend who was the same age as you is now older than you? You might talk to a man named Bob Smith. Bob recently returned from his trip to the edge of the universe and we were fortunate enough to talk to Bob about what he experienced on his journey. We also got the opportunity to talk with Bob's close friend, J

The biological definition of a clone is an organism that has the same genetic information as another organism or organisms. From this definition and from information about the science behind cloning, my current view on cloning is that it is ethical. This statement ignores information about how we can misuse cloning and what consequences occur when the procedure is unsuccessful. In fact, I currently do not think cloning should be used until it is perfected. I doubt however that we will allow c

Clinical Features of Influenza Influenza, commonly called "the flu," is caused by viruses that infect the respiratory tract. Compared with most other viral respiratory infections, such as the common cold, influenza infection often causes a more severe illness. Typical clinical features of influenza include fever (usually 100oF to 103oF in adults and often even higher in children) and respiratory symptoms, such as cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, as well as headache, muscle aches, a

The life Process of a cell In my report you will learn about the life process of a cell based on the two main functions, metabolism and mitosis. You will learn about the four stages of metabolism: ingestion, digestion, respiration, and excretion, and how the cell completes them. You also will acquire information about the four stages of mitosis: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telephase, and how the cell completes them. Mitosis is the process in which cells reproduce. These two processe

Science vs. Ethics An elderly man is diagnosed with an aneurysm, the thinning in the wall of the aorta. In order to repair his failing artery, he receives a patch of healthy tissue-cloned from his own cells and cultured in a laboratory. A child is born free of the gene that allows sickle-cell anemia, despite both her parents being carriers. How was this possible? In the embryonic cell from which she was cloned, normal DNA was used replaced the flawed gene. Could a genius clone Hitler? Could a

Photosynthesis is the process by which plant cells, algae, and some bacteria, capture light energy and change it to chemical energy. Almost all of the world's energy is provided through photosynthesis. The equation for photosynthesis is CO 2 + 2H 2 A + light energy---> (CH 2 ) + H2 0 + H2 A . Photosynthesis is in two stages : a series of reactions that need light and certain temperatures and a series of reactions that don't need light but need certain temperatures. The

Like many modern students, Charles Darwin exceeded only in subjects that intrigued him. Although his father was a physician, Darwin was uninterested in medicine and he was unable to stand the sight of surgery. He did eventually obtain a degree in theology from Cambridge University, although theology too was of minor interest to him. What Darwin really liked to do was to tramp over hills, observing plants and animals, collecting new specimens, scrutinizing their structures, and categorizing hi

This paper is on the processes of fermentation, cellular respiration, photosynthesis, diffusion, osmosis, and enzyme activity. What do these six processes have in common? Fermentation is a chemical process that breaks down organic materials. This process is carried out by such microbes as bacteria, molds, and yeasts. For example, molds or fungi act upon mixtures of molasses and mineral salts to produce penicillin. Yeast breaks down sugar gotten from malted grain into ethyl alcohol an

Lysergic Acid Diethylamide-25 Lysergic acid diethylamide-25, or LSD, commonly street named as "acid" or "sugar" is a member of the hallucinogenic drug class. Other members of the hallucinogenic drug class are psilocybin, and mescaline. A mild hallucinogen is marijuana. Hallucinogens alter the way time is perceived, making time itself to seem at a standstill. Most Hallucinogens produce Hallucinations, which are shape and color shifts that differ from the outside world as well as the imaginat

Yellow Fever Yellow fever is a viral disease transmitted between humans by mosquitoes but is noncontagious. Yellow fever is known for effecting humans, but also effect monkeys and other animals. The disease occurs only in parts of Africa and South America. But there are only some countries in Africa and South America that have endemic Yellow Fever. In South America the countries are Panama, Columbia, Venezuela, Suriname, Western Ecuador, Guyana, French Guyana, Western Peru, Western Bolivia, a

Basking shark Cetorhinus maximus (Gunnerus) 1765 Bone Shark Bigelow and Schroeder, 1948, p. 147. In light of recent reports of basking sharks along the New England Coast we have assembled this page to provide information concerning this second largest of all sharks. This species is not known to be aggressive or dangerous but like any large animal should be treated with respect. The information below is taken from Bigelow and Schroeder, Fishes of the Gulf of Maine. The basking

1 The species of boa is an attractive and fascinating reptile. Due to their great adaptation abilities they make odd, but awesome pets. They eat rats, chicks, and other small mammals in captivity. Also successful breeding is possible if the creature is properly cared for. A unique and interesting animal, the Boidae, thrives in tropical and dry climates adapting well, eating a variety of prey, but poachers and the destruction of their habitats constantly threaten the

The Basking Shark: Hope for the Future? Introduction - What are the biological characteristics, habitat, and value of basking sharks? I. Interrelated life forms populate the oceans. A. Photoplankton synthesize food. 1. Using carbon dioxide 2. Dissolving minerals 3. Collecting sunlight energy B. Small fish consume photoplankton. C. Zooplankton eats minute plants. 1. Sea worms 2. Jellyfish 3.

The Ebola Virus The Ebola virus is one of the most deadly viruses that man kind has ever seen. In clinical cases it has a mortality rate of 50%-90%. The Viruses has many different strains including Marburg, Ebola Zaire, Reston and Sudan, each named after the location of their first clinical case. They each cause different symptoms and different mortality rates. Non the less, the collection of Ebola viruses at the present, pose a serious health threat to people in undeveloped countries and

Genetic Engineering I personally think that genetic engineering could be an excellent thing. People should be able to go as far as they can and do anything possible. Diseases could be avoided. Slow metabolic rates could be avoided, which result in overweight people. High and low cholesterol could be avoided. People wouldn't have to be deformed and look like mutants. People would be more intelligent. The number of scientific advancements would sky rocket. Injuries could be avoided, b

Evolution A species cannot be created by mutating a species. No matter how many mutations occur the mutation does not evolve the species. No one has ever produced a species by means of natural selection. About 6 hundred million years ago the earliest know fossil record of animals were know to be alive. Amber has been preserved in the earth's crust for millions of years. Amber is a gem and is also organic. This is a fossilized material. There is jade-bearing rocks in Guatemala also.

By Cory Cooper 10th grade 1997-98 of RIO AMERICANO HIGH SCHOOL-leave my name please! Carolus Linnaeus was a Swedish naturalist and physician. He created the classification system for classifying plants and animals that is now universally used. He created the binomial system which each living thing is assigned a name that is made of two Latin words. The first word is genus and the second is species. Linnaeus was the Father of Systematic Botany. Linnaeus was born Carl von Linnaeus

Richard Shine, Thomas R. L. Madsen, Melanie J. Elphick, and Peter S. Harlow authored the journal entry titled, "The Influence of Nest Temperatures and Maternal Brooding on Hatchling Phenotypes in Water Pythons" and had it published in volume 78(6) of Ecology in 1997. The work deals with the Water Python (Liasis fuscus) of Northern Australia and how temperature and the amount of maternal brooding results in different phenotypes in hatchlings. In the experiment the authors measured body siz

Click Here For Research Papers Online! Science Future Adaptations:Stingray Survival of the Stingray Imagine yourself 150,000 years in the future. Another ice age is in full force. Temperatures are much colder, vegetation has ceased to exist, along with several entire animal species. The lion, once the king of the jungle, is no more than an alley cat scavenging for food. The great white shark- reduced to the size of goldfish. A new predator is on the prowl. The stingray, once li

Click Here For Research Papers Online! To look up into the mountains and see the steam rolling from a mountain stream on a cold winters morning is a beautiful sight. However, to look out over the horizon and see the white spray of salt water coming from the blow of a huge hump-back whale is much more exciting sight and a whole lot warmer. I lived in the mountains of Colorado for most of my childhood. The first time I had the opportunity to see the ocean was on a vacation to Califor

Click Here For Research Papers Online! ANGINA PECTORIS Submitted by: Course: SBI OAO To: Date: CONTENTS 3 Introduction 4 The Human Heart 5 Symptoms of Coronary Heart Disease 5 Heart Attack 5 Sudden Death 5 Angina 6 Angina Pectoris 6 Signs and Symptoms 7 Different Forms of Angina 8 Causes of Angina 9 Atherosclerosis 9 Plaque 10 Lipoproteins 10 Lipoproteins and Atheroma 11 Risk

Click Here For Research Papers Online! Essay on Reptiles Reptiles are vertebrate, or backboned animals constituting the class Reptilia and are characterized by a combination of features, none of which alone could separate all reptiles from all other animals. The characteristics of reptiles are numerous, therefore can not be explained in great detail in this report. In no special order, the characteristics of reptiles are: cold-bloodedness; the presence of lungs; direct development, wit

Click Here For Research Papers Online! THE EFFECTS OF ALTITUDE ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY Changes in altitude have a profound effect on the human body. The body attempts to maintain a state of homeostasis or balance to ensure the optimal operating environment for its complex chemical systems. Any change from this homeostasis is a change away from the optimal operating environment. The body attempts to correct this imbalance. One such imbalance is the effect of increasing altitude on the bo

Click Here For Research Papers Online! PHM499 Research Project Calcium transport study of SF-9 lepidopteran cells and bull frog sympathetic ganglion cells ABSTRACT The intracellular calcium level and the calcium efflux of the bull-frog sympathetic ganglion cells (BSG) and the SF-9 lepidopteran ovarian cells were investigated using a calcium-sensitive fluorescence probe fura-2. It was found that the int INTRODUCTION Spodoptera frugiperda clone 9 (SF-9) cells are a cultured ins

Click Here For Research Papers Online! THE IMPORTANCE OF ANIMAL RESEARCH by: Josh Wakefield Research on animals is important in understanding diseases and developing ways to prevent them. The polio vaccine, kidney transplants, and heart surgery techniques have all been developed with the help of animal research. Through increased efforts by the scientific community, effective treatments for diabetes, diphtheria, and other diseases have been

Click Here For Research Papers Online! Biochemistry Prolonged Preservation of the Heart Prior to Transplantation Picture this. A man is involved in a severe car crash in Florida which has left him brain-dead with no hope for any kind of recovery. The majority of his vital organs are still functional and the man has designated that his organs be donated to a needy person upon his untimely death. Meanwhile, upon checking with the donor registry board, it is discovered that t

Click Here For Research Papers Online! Biology - Histology The Human Heart. Abstract: Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary defines the heart as "the viscus of cardiac muscle that maintains the circulation of the blood". It is divided into four cavities; two atria and two ventricles. The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs. From there the blood passes to the left ventricle, which forces it via the aorta, through the arteries to supply the tissues of the

Click Here For Research Papers Online! Biology - Genetics The Cystic Fibrosis Gene Introduction: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder amongst Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be exten

Click Here For Research Papers Online! Proteins made from ribosomes attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum enter the lumen of the ER and move to the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. A small vacuole (vesicle) pinches off the smooth ER and carries the protein to the Golgi apparatus, where it is further processed. ------------------------------------------------------------- Mitochondria are bounded by a double membrane. The inner membrane is folded to form little shelves, called cris

Click Here For Research Papers Online! 1. a) Bulk movement is the overall movement of a fluid. The molecules all move in the same direction. Diffusion however is the random movement of molecules which usually results in a fairly even distribution. In other words the movement is not guaranteed to move in one direction but the probability that it will move in the lower gradient is greater. Osmosis is similar to diffusion but is differentiated by the membrane's behavior. The cell membrane

Click Here For Research Papers Online! Essay of Eukaryotic Organelles 10/1/96 The mitochondria has an eggshape structure. The mitochondria consists of an inner and outer membrane. The outer membrane is what shapes the organelle to its egglike shape. The inner membrane which folds inward makes a set of "shelves" or cristae that allow the reactions of the mitochondria to take place. The more the mitochondria makes these reactions the more the inner membrane folds. This happens because the

Click Here For Research Papers Online! subject = Biology title = The Giant Clam papers = Please put your paper here. The Giant Clam The giant clam is known as a reef dwelling mollusk. The domestication factor has become of large importance to the Indo-Pacific peoples. Mainly in the area of their diet. These huge clams are huge targets for fishermen and can be found easily. With the crystal water complection of the reef waters they live in makes them even easier to

Click Here For Research Papers Online! subject = biology title = Gregor Mendel papers = Gregor Mendel played a huge role in the underlying principles of genetic inheritance. Gregor was born, July 22 1822 in Heinzendorf, Austrian Silesia (now known as Hyncice, Czech Republic), with the name Johann Mendel. He changed his name to Gregor in 1843. He grew up in an Augustinian brotherhood and he learned agricultural training with basic education. He then went on to the Olmutz Philosophical

Click Here For Research Papers Online! subject = biology title = Biology Instinct papers = Insects are neumerout invertebrate animals that belong in the Phylum Arthropoda and Class Insecta. The class Insecta is divided into 2 subclasses: Apterygota, or wingless insects, and Pterygota, or winged insects. Subclass Pterygota is futher divided on basis of metamorphosis. Insects that have undergone incomplete metamorphosis are the Exopterygota. Insects that undergo complete metamorp

Click Here For Research Papers Online! name = Fnord Discordia email = publish = yes subject= Biology title = Mitochondria and Chloroplast Essay papers = Biology Mitochondria and Chloroplast Essay I. Introduction Out of all the organelles there are two that have fascinated microbiologists for the past hundred years. The first is the mitochondria, nicknamed the "powerhouse of the cell." The second is the chloroplast in plant cells that have functions s

The Biothics of Cloning Bioethics, which is the study of value judgments pertaining to human conduct in the area of biology and includes those related to the practice of medicine, has been an important aspect of all areas in the scientific field (Bernstein, Maurice, M.D.). It is one of the factors that says whether or not certain scientific research can go on, and if it can, under which rules and regulations it must abide by. One of the most recent and controversial issues facing our socie

Click Here For Research Papers Online! subject = Intro to Biology title = XYY Syndrome papers = XYY Males XYY Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder which affects males due to an extra Y chromosome. Healthy males have 46 chromosomes including one X and one Y chromosome. Men with XYY syndrome have 47 chromosomes, two of which are Y chromosomes. It is not known why the extra Y chromosome occurs. The disorder is present at birth and is estimated to occur in one out of every one thousand li

What are all the different ups and downs of marijuana, what can it be used for, and what is it\'s role in today\'s society? Introduction I. Marijuana A. Getting high 1. Effects 2. How B. Hemp 1. What is it for a. Cothes/paper b. Seasoning/cooking II. Use A. History B. Who uses 1. Average user 2. Celebrities III. Medical use A. Pain reliever B. Legalization - yes or no 1. Lincoln quote 2. Current laws IV. Bad Sides A. Death 1. Chart B. Crime and harder drugs 1.

Click Here For Research Papers Online! papers = Marfan's Syndrome It has been about six months since my brother has been diagnosed with Marfan syndrome. He has always been tall for his age, but we never took it for anything more then that. After he broke his arm in a little fall, we brought him to a doctor. After the d The specialist performed alot of different tests on my brother. He first did an echocardiogram, which tests the heart. The process involved bouncing sound waves into the ch

Click Here For Research Papers Online! subject = Biology title = Purple Loosestrife papers = Lvl1 Biology 9/12/96 Purple Loosestrife Lythrum Salicaria L. or Purple Loosestrife is a plant causing much trouble today. It thrives in wetlands and marshes and is impervious to most harsh weather climates. It is indigenous to most parts of Europe Once established, Purple Loosestrife predom ed, this did reduce the plants growing in the now deepened water, but they thrived in the shallow

Tobacco industry are dangerous and that nicotine is addictive. A Liggett official made the statement last week in settling lawsuits by 22 states. The letters a new nationwide poll commissioned by an anti-smoking group indicated that 73 percent of Americans '' should hold hearings on the tobacco industry.'' Democrats held dramatic hearings in 1994 to investigate tobacco industry practices. After Republicans won control of the House in the November 1994 elections, the new majority