The Universe

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The Universe


what lies beyond our planet. The universe that we live in is so diverse

and unique, and it interests us to learn about all the variance that

lies beyond our grasp. Within this marvel of wonders our universe holds

a mystery that is very difficult to understand because of the complications

that arise when trying to examine and explore the principles of space.

That mystery happens to be that of the ever clandestine, black hole.


of the concepts, properties, and processes involved with the space

phenomenon of the black hole. It will describe how a black hole is

generally formed, how it functions, and the effects it has on the universe.


take a look at the basis for the cause of a black hole. All black holes

are formed from the gravitational collapse of a star, usually having a

great, massive, core. A star is created when huge, gigantic, gas clouds

bind together due to attractive forces and form a hot core, combined from

all the energy of the two gas clouds. This energy produced is so great

when it first collides, that a nuclear reaction occurs and the gases within

the star start to burn continuously. The Hydrogen gas is usually the first

type of gas consumed in a star and then other gas elements such as Carbon,

Oxygen, and Helium are consumed.


years depending upon the amount of gases there are.



equilibrium achieved by itself. The gravitational pull from the core of

the star is equal to the gravitational pull of the gases forming a type of

orbit, however when this equality is broken the star can go into several

different stages.


consumed while some of it escapes. This occurs because there is not a

tremendous gravitational pull upon those gases and therefore the star

weakens and becomes smaller. It is then referred to as a White Dwarf.

If the star was to have a larger mass however, then it may possibly

Supernova, meaning that the nuclear fusion within the star simply goes

out of control causing the star to explode. After exploding a fraction

of the star is usually left (if it has not turned into pure gas) and that

fraction of the star is known as a neutron star.


the core of the star is so massive (approximately 6©8 solar masses;

one solar mass being equal to the sun's mass) then it is most likely that

when the star's gases are almost consumed those gases will collapse inward,

forced into the core by the gravitational force laid upon them.


to pull in space debris and other type of matters to help add to the

mass of the core, making the hole stronger and more powerful.



the Event Horizon) that is formed around the black hole. The matter keeps

within the Event Horizon until it has spun into the centre where it is

concentrated within the core adding to the mass. Such spinning black holes

are known as Kerr Black Holes.


were a star, and this may cause some problems for the neighbouring stars.

If a black hole gets powerful enough it may actually pull a star into it

and disrupt the orbit of many other stars. The black hole could then

grow even stronger (from the star's mass) as to possibly absorb another.


Ergosphere, which sweeps all the matter into the Event Horizon, named for

it's flat horizontal appearance and because this happens to be the place

where mostly all the action within the black hole occurs. When the star is

passed on into the Event Horizon the light that the star endures is bent

within the current and therefore cannot be seen in space. At this exact

point in time, high amounts of radiation are given off, that with the

proper equipment can be detected and seen as an image of a black hole.

Through this technique astronomers now believe that they have found a black

hole known as Cygnus X1. This supposed black hole has a huge star orbiting

around it, therefore we assume there must be a black hole that it is in

orbit with.


and the collapsing of stars, were a professor, Robert Oppenheimer and his


on the basis of Einstein's theory of relativity that if the speed of light

was the utmost speed over any massive object, then nothing could escape

a black hole once in it's clutches. **(1)


could not escape from the gravitational pull from the core, thus making the

black hole impossible for humans to see without using technological

advancements for measuring such things like radiation. The second part of

the word was named "hole" due to the fact that the actual hole, is where

everything is absorbed and where the centre core presides. This core is

the main part of the black hole where the mass is concentrated and appears

purely black on all readings even through the use of radiation

detection devices.



known as The Hubble Telescope. This telescope has just recently found

what many astronomers believe to be a black hole, after being focused on

an star orbiting empty space. Several picture were sent back

to Earth from the telescope showing many computer enhanced pictures of

various radiation fluctuations and other diverse types of readings that

could be read from the area in which the black hole is suspected to be in.


if somehow you were to survive through the centre of the black hole that

there would be enough gravitational force to possible warp you to another

end in the universe or possibly to another universe. The creative ideas

that can be hypothesized from this discovery are endless.




phenomenons, it is our duty to continue exploring them and to continue

learning, but in the process we must not take any of it for granted.


and they contain so much curiosity that they could possibly hold

unlimited uses. Black holes are a sensation that astronomers are

still very puzzled with. It seems that as we get closer to solving

their existence and functions, we just end up with more and more questions.


problems we seek and find refuge into them, dreaming that maybe one day,

one far off distant day, we will understand all the conceptions and we

will be able to use the universe to our advantage and go where only

our dreams could take us.




**(1): Parker, Barry. Colliding Galaxies. PG#96

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