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Emperor K'ang-hsi ruled China from 1661 to 1722 and his reign is captured by

Jonathan D. Spence's book Emperor of China. The different chapters of the book deal

with certain aspects of the Emperors life. Aspects that the history books to normally


with. The information in Spence's book is based on Emperor K'ang-hsi's

correspondence, his own writings. This writing maybe biased towards himself, but no

other piece of information could provide insight into his mind. The book is divided into

six parts; In motion, Ruling, Thinking, Growing Old, Sons, Valedictory. The book

follows Emperor K'ang-hsi's life as Emperor in chronological order.

In the first part, "In Motion," the main emphasis was on Emperor K'ang-hsi travels

though his kingdom. He wrote a letter to Ku Wen-hsing stating that he had traveled

1000's of miles in each direction. He had traveled to the provinces of Shansi and

Shensi in

the west, to the provinces of Manchuria and Ula in the east, north across the Gobi to


Kerulean River and south to the Yangtze River. On his travels, Emperor K'ang-hsi,


to collect and compare different plats, animals, birds that he came across. He loved to

hunt with bows and guns during his travels. Emperor K'ang-hsi hunting practices


not just meant for joy and exercise, it was also an exercise in military preparedness.


took thousands of his troops on many of his trips to train them in shooting, camp life,


formation riding.

The second part of the book emphasis on the historiographically part of the

emperors rule. The authors' facts were based on the thousands of imperial documents


came from the emperor. The author was able to piece together the kind to government

that existed. The central bureaucracy of emperor K'ang-hsi's China was composed of


metropolitan division and a provincial division. The metropolitan division was


by four to six Grand Secretaries and were directed by the presidents and

vice-presidents of

the Six Boards. The provinces were divided into six province blocks, controlled by s

governor-general. Each province was divided into prefectures and each prefecture


subdivided into counties controlled by a magistrate. Ruling to Emperor K'ang-hsi


he had compete control for his economical and educational structure. He also felt that


was responsible for the life and death of subjects.

The third part of the book is "Thinking," that deals with Emperor K'ang-hsi

perspective on his life and of his subjects. Emperor K'ang-hsi believed in Neo-

Confucianism and often refereed to it as the Confucian Classic. In different parts of


Emperors life he was interested in geometry, astronomy, cartography, medicine, and


He took advantage in the free time a ruler has to expand his mind.

The section "Growing Old" showed that Emperor K'ang-hsi recognized that the

human body was fallible. He tried to prolong his life with an awareness into his diet,

medicine and memory. He tried to obtain public sympathy with his openness towards


health, thus gaining the there trust and support in hard times. K'ang-hsi recognized


admission to his physical weakness was the ultimate honestly but preventing


weakness was the ultimate common sense. Practicing medicine under Emperor


was a highly specialized practice. He had large groups of men for diagnosis and

treatment. In the end, K'ang-hsi knew that death was enviable, but he tried to live


though his children. K'ang-hsi had fifty-six children in his life time, but only one was


to his first wife. This son was to be raised as the heir to the throne, he received the


care and love that the Emperor could give.

From an early age, K'ang-hsi eldest son knew he would inherit the throne. Many

officials also knew that the son would inherit the throne and thus tried to gain favors


the son. Different officials also tried to jockey for position with the government.

Emperor did not look kindly towards this. This political theme is the basis for the


named "Sons." Thirty years after Emperor K'ang-hsi was helped into power by his


Songgotu, he had Sonnggotu executed. Shortly after Sonnggotu was killed, Emperor

K'ang-hsi had his sons killed also. In 1712 the garrison commander of Peking was

put to

death in fear of the commander gaining to much power. Emperor K'ang-hsi was very

protective of his sons. When he suspected that his son Yin-jeng has indulging in

homosexual activities, K'ang-hsi had three cooks and the serving boys put to death.


suspected that the cooks and servers were engaging in homosexual activities with his


In conclusion, the book achieves in its purpose, to give new insights into the

Emperors life. Spence's book goes into greater detail about Emperor K'ang-hsi life


any history book could have. Spence is able to do this by emphasizing on K'ang-hsi's

writings, and not on other sources. The book was divided into six sections that


different aspects of the K'ang-hsi life and times. The most interesting chapter in my

option was the chapter "Sons." In this chapter Spence describes the Emperor's


nature towards his sons. He went to great lengths to protect his sons and their heir to


kingdom. Spence's summary of the data he collected was a little too short. Spence


not go into great detail over many facts. In addition, Spence did not address issues

outside China that effected it. By this time in history, China had foreign intervention


influence. Yet Spence did not address the issue of foreign policies that K'ang-hsi


during his reign. In the end Spence did achieve his goal of gaining new insights into

Emperor K'ang-hsi and wrote a good history of the Emperors life.

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