In what today is ! as Iraq there once was a great civilization ! as Babylonia, which at one
time could have ! the world and was home to the second wonder of the world. Babylonia
! an ancient region ! the Tigris and Euphrates river ! what is now southern Iraq near the
end of the Fertile Cresent. This great civilization first ! around 3500 B.C. and ! to crumble
after the year 323 B.C. The Babylonian culture was sucessful because of the people ! in
Babylonia's cities, their technology, and political and legal systems.
The capital of the Babylonian empire was a large city ! Babylon which could have
been home to 10,000 to 40,000 Sumerians and Semites. The city was ! by a large wall to
ward off any attackers. Inside the walls there ! several magnificent palaces and temples !
worship. The rest of the city had typical houses that had a central courtyard ! by rooms.
These houses ! narrow and twisting streets and outside the wall at openings open air
markets took place. The Sumerians or non-Semitic were the first people to settle in
Babylonia, but were gradually ! by Semitic. The Sumerians ! the land into a great area to
farm and raise livestock, by ! swamps and ! canals. In conclusion the cities like Babylon
and the people who ! them help to make the Babylonian empire very sucessful.
The Babylonians ! the technical achievements of the Sumerians in irrigation and
agriculture. Maintaining the system of canals, dikes, weirs, and reservoirs ! by their
predecessors ! considerable engineering knowledge and skill. Preparation of maps,
surveys, and plans involved the use of leveling instruments and measuring rods. For
mathematical and arithmetical purposes they used the Sumerian sexagesimal system of
numbers, which ! a useful device of so-called place-value notation that resembles the
present-day decimal system. Measures of length, area, capacity, and weight, ! earlier by
the Sumerians, ! in use. Farming was a ! and methodical occupation ! foresight, diligence,
and skill. A recently ! document written in Sumerian but used as a textbook in the
Babylonian schools is a veritable farmer's almanac; it records a series of instructions and
directions to guide farm activities from the watering of the fields to the winnowing of the
Law and justice were key concepts in the Babylonian way of life. Justice was ! by
the courts, each of which consisted of from one to four judges. Often the elders of a town
constituted a tribunal. The judges could not reverse their decisions for any reason, but
appeals from their verdicts could be made to the king. Evidence ! either of statements
from witnesses or of written documents. To ensure that their legal, administrative, and
economic institutions ! effectively, the Babylonians used the cuneiform system of !
developed by their Sumerian predecessors. To train their scribes, secretaries, archivists,
and other administrative personnel, they ! the Sumerian system of formal education, under
which secular schools ! as the cultural centers of the land.
Babylonia was part of the Persian empire from 539
B.C. until 331 B.C. when Alexander the Great took over the empire. Alexander ! Babylon
so much he was ! to make Babylon the capital of his empire, but he ! in 323 and after that
point the Babylonian empire began to crumble forever. On the other hand the Babylonian
empire has left us with many great advancement in many fields and also made their empire
sucessful. In conclusion the Babylonian empire was one of the greatest civilizations ever
on this planet.