In what today is ! as Iraq there once was a great civilization ! as Babylonia, which at one

time could have ! the world and was home to the second wonder of the world. Babylonia

! an ancient region ! the Tigris and Euphrates river ! what is now southern Iraq near the

end of the Fertile Cresent. This great civilization first ! around 3500 B.C. and ! to crumble

after the year 323 B.C. The Babylonian culture was sucessful because of the people ! in

Babylonia's cities, their technology, and political and legal systems.

The capital of the Babylonian empire was a large city ! Babylon which could have

been home to 10,000 to 40,000 Sumerians and Semites. The city was ! by a large wall to

ward off any attackers. Inside the walls there ! several magnificent palaces and temples !

worship. The rest of the city had typical houses that had a central courtyard ! by rooms.

These houses ! narrow and twisting streets and outside the wall at openings open air

markets took place. The Sumerians or non-Semitic were the first people to settle in

Babylonia, but were gradually ! by Semitic. The Sumerians ! the land into a great area to

farm and raise livestock, by ! swamps and ! canals. In conclusion the cities like Babylon

and the people who ! them help to make the Babylonian empire very sucessful.

The Babylonians ! the technical achievements of the Sumerians in irrigation and

agriculture. Maintaining the system of canals, dikes, weirs, and reservoirs ! by their

predecessors ! considerable engineering knowledge and skill. Preparation of maps,

surveys, and plans involved the use of leveling instruments and measuring rods. For

mathematical and arithmetical purposes they used the Sumerian sexagesimal system of

numbers, which ! a useful device of so-called place-value notation that resembles the

present-day decimal system. Measures of length, area, capacity, and weight, ! earlier by

the Sumerians, ! in use. Farming was a ! and methodical occupation ! foresight, diligence,

and skill. A recently ! document written in Sumerian but used as a textbook in the

Babylonian schools is a veritable farmer's almanac; it records a series of instructions and

directions to guide farm activities from the watering of the fields to the winnowing of the

harvested crops.

Law and justice were key concepts in the Babylonian way of life. Justice was ! by

the courts, each of which consisted of from one to four judges. Often the elders of a town

constituted a tribunal. The judges could not reverse their decisions for any reason, but

appeals from their verdicts could be made to the king. Evidence ! either of statements

from witnesses or of written documents. To ensure that their legal, administrative, and

economic institutions ! effectively, the Babylonians used the cuneiform system of !

developed by their Sumerian predecessors. To train their scribes, secretaries, archivists,

and other administrative personnel, they ! the Sumerian system of formal education, under

which secular schools ! as the cultural centers of the land.

Babylonia was part of the Persian empire from 539

B.C. until 331 B.C. when Alexander the Great took over the empire. Alexander ! Babylon

so much he was ! to make Babylon the capital of his empire, but he ! in 323 and after that

point the Babylonian empire began to crumble forever. On the other hand the Babylonian

empire has left us with many great advancement in many fields and also made their empire

sucessful. In conclusion the Babylonian empire was one of the greatest civilizations ever

on this planet.

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