Sports med-drug abuse report Term Paper

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Four Major Types of Drugs:

What they are and how they affect the body.


These slow down the activity of the nervous system. They include alcohol, inhalants (including glue, nail polish remover, cleaning fluid, lighter fluid, antifreeze, aerosol from cans or household products and gasoline), minor tranquilizers (including Valium), and sedatives (including barbiturates, Quaaludes, and PCP). All depressants except PCP can be obtained legally.


These stimulate activity, suppress the appetite, and ameliorate emotional depression. They include the legal drugs caffeine and nicotine as well as the legal and illegal amphetamines and the illegal methadrine, ecstasy and cocaine.


These are mind-distorters. They have no medical use and create altered perceptions. They include marijuana, (only recently has marijuana been considered for medical purposes) LSD, and mescaline. All hallucinogens are illegal.


These have an analgesic effect. They relieve physical pain and make surgery possible, but they are highly addictive. They include morphine, codeine, and heroin.

Emerging Drugs

Methamphetamine continues to be a rapidly growing problem in many areas of the country. In Alabama, a household survey found that the number of state residents in need of treatment for methamphetamine abuse nearly equals that for cocaine and exceeds that for heroin. Treatment providers in California, Oregon, Georgia, Arizona and North Carolina report significant increases in clients entering treatment with methamphetamine problems. One clinical director in Arizona reported that 70-80 percent of clients are methamphetamine abusers, and in Washington State, methamphetamine admissions are up 20 percent over last winter.

Ethnographers in California and Colorado report a steady climb in the numbers of methamphetamine users in their areas. The Colorado ethnographer comments that as recently as a year ago methamphetamine was considered a "biker" drug, but it is now gaining in popularity and "moving into new groups." Some new users are former cocaine users who have switched to methamphetamine. As a drug, which can be injected, inhaled, or made into pills, methamphetamine attracts a wide variety of users. In San Francisco it is popular among young club goers, suburbanites, and heroin users. Some heroin users in that area "speedball" with heroin and methamphetamine rather than the more common speedball combination of heroin and cocaine. Police sources in Seattle report that methamphetamine is the "drug of choice." It enters the area in large quantities from Mexico and is incorporated into the distribution networks for heroin and cocaine.

Methamphetamine is also one of the few drugs reported as more or equally prevalent as other illicit drugs in areas outside the inner city (Colorado, California, Washington, D.C.). Police sources in Washington, D.C. report that it is used heavily in the suburbs, especially on college and university campuses. In that area, it is most commonly found in granular form and snorted. Police contacts in Southern California report that cocaine, particularly crack, has acquired a "lowlife" reputation, while methamphetamine has gained a reputation as a "hip drug." Use in Southern California appears to be pervasive - from Mexican immigrants to high school students to Hollywood club goers. Many methamphetamine users are former cocaine users. A Georgia treatment provider described methamphetamine as "redneck cocaine," referring to its popularity among white working class users who may have formerly used cocaine.

Rohypnol, a powerful benzodiazepine tranquilizer, is also cited widely as an emerging drug. Ethnographers in Delaware and Florida state that Rohypnol was formerly one of several "club drugs" used by young club and rave goers, but it has now reached a wider audience and is emerging as a street drug of abuse. Sources in the South and along the Mexican border report its prevalence, and it also appears in reports from Washington, D.C. and the Mid-Atlantic area. In addition, sources report that other "club drugs" such as Xanax, Ketamine, Clonipin, and Quaaludes are also increasingly popular, especially among younger drug users.

Ephedrine is a rising problem in many areas. There is increased interest in "natural products" that contain ephedrine or pseudoephedrine, which reportedly act like methamphetamine or MDMA. These products are legal, and they are often marketed as energy enhancers or weight loss aids in health food stores and mail order catalogs. In Texas, sources report that consumers are trying to buy large quantities of these products in pharmacies.

Drug Terminology

Trip: refers to the feelings, thought, and perceptions one experiences while under the influence of a hallucinogenic. A "bad trip" results in panic and terror.

Ganja, Maryjane, Pot, Reefer, M.J., Spliff, Weed, Nickel, Joint, Roach, Dime, Bone, Bong, Hit, Hooch, Dube, Grass, Shake, and Smoke are used to refer to marijuana.

Burnouts: are the disorientation, confusion, and possible memory loss resulting from long-term and heavy use of hallucinogens or amphetamines.

Skin-Popping refers to injecting drugs under the skin.

Mainlining: is injecting drugs directly into the vein.

Slamming: is injecting speed, cocaine, or heroin.

Crash or Crashing: refers to coming down from a speed or cocaine high.

Bag or Baggie: refers to an amount of marijuana in a plastic bag.

Dime Bag: is a ten-dollar bag of marijuana.

Blitzed, Lit, Ripped, Wasted, Freaked, Blasted, Buzzed, and Cooked: are used to refer to getting or being high.

Drug Prices (street value average for the u.s.)

Marijuana: *$100-$200/per oz. * $1-$10/per gram depending on quality. *Hash = $20/per gram

Cocaine: *$70-$125/per gram *$850-$1950/per oz.

Heroin: *$100-$250/per gram *$900-$1000/per oz.

* = Dependant on quality.

Media Influence

Movies, television, and advertisements often glamorize drinking. There is an average of ten to eleven "drinking acts" (defined as ingestion of alcohol or preparation to drink) per viewers this means witnessing about twenty drinking scenes almost every evening. Of course, marketing alcohol is serious business. By the time the average teen is eighteen years old, he or she has seen 100,000 TV beer commercials. The goal of advertisers is to increase the percentage of those who drink and increase the number of times people drink.

In It's Killing Our Kids, Jerry Johnston points out that Michelob Beer's ad campaign began over a decade ago with the catchy slogan "Weekends are make for Michelob." Soon the ad evolved into "Put a little weekend in your week." Then the sales pitch became "The night belongs to Michelob." In about one decade, Michelob moved from advocating drinking as a way to unwind on the weekend to promoting drinking as a habitual nightly activity (Johnston, 1991).

Despite the legal drinking age of twenty-one in most states, adolescents are becoming a major target group for advertising campaign featuring alcohol. The companies know that winning the brand loyalty of a young person may result in loyalty for several years. The alcohol industry also knows that the largest portion of beer drinkers is between eighteen and twenty-four, with college students spending two billion dollars annually on beer.

What will be next legalization and advertising of drugs? Our kids already see thousands of referrals every year towards the use, buying and selling of illegal drugs shown to them through every aspect of the media.

Warning Signs for Drug Abuse

1.Deterioration in school performance

2.Resistance to authority defiance

3.Difficulty waking adolescent

4.Odor of gasoline or other house-hold products

5.Unexplainable paint around mouth or on hands

6.Slurred speech


8.Appearing spaced-out

9.Dilated pupils

10.Presence of drug paraphernalia (pipes, pill boxes, straws, spoons, cigarette papers etc…) go figure…

11.Clothing depicting drug themes

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) defines psychoactive Substance Dependence as the presence of at least three of the following symptoms for at least one month:

1.The person uses more of the substance or uses it for a longer time that intended.

2.The person recognizes excessive use of the substance and may have tried to reduce it but has been unable to do so.

3.Much of the person's time is spent in efforts to obtain the substance or recover from its effects.

4.The person is intoxicated or suffering from withdrawal symptoms at times when responsibilities need to be fulfilled, as school or work.

5.Many activities are given up or reduced in frequency because of the use of the substance.

6.Problems in health, social relationships, and psychological functioning occur.

7.Tolerance develops, requiring larger doses (at least a 50% increase) of the substance to produce the desired effect.

8.Withdrawal symptoms develop when the person stops ingesting substances or reduces the amount.

9.The person uses the substance to relieve withdrawal symptoms. For example, one may drop acid early in the morning because one feels withdrawal symptoms coming on.

The DSM-IV defines psychoactive substance Abuse as the presence of at least one of the following: Continued use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent social, occupational, psychological, or physical problem that is caused or exacerbated by use of the psychoactive substance.

Re-current use in situation in which use is physically hazardous. For example, driving while intoxicated.


Warning Signs of Depression in Adolescents

Some depression in adolescence is normal, and is probable better thought of as feeling down or blue. However, a point comes at which feelings of discouragement take on the debilitating characteristics of depression.

Early Signs Include:

1.Sad facial expression

2.A loss of interest in school, church or leisure-time activities

3.Being easily agitated and irritated

4.Feelings of inferiority




Advanced Signs Include:

1.Loss of energy which is accompanied by insomnia or hypersomnia

2.Loss of appetite or excessive eating

3.Social withdrawal


5.Difficulty with concentration

6.Inability to enjoy pleasurable events

Most Important Signs: (Often occurs together)

1.Sad mood

2.Loss of interest in one's environment

3.Suicidal ideation or thoughts

4.Giving away valued personal possessions

A.A.D.A.C. SERVICES (and rehabilitation)


Freedom from the abuse of alcohol, other drugs and gambling

Making a difference in people's lives by leading to an addiction-free future-that's AADAC's vision.

AADAC (the Alberta Alcohol and Drug Abuse Commission) is an agency funded by the government of Alberta to help Albertans achieve a life free of the abuse of alcohol, other drugs and gambling.

AADAC and its 25 funded agencies provide a wide range of services in 37 communities.

How AADAC Helps

They assist Albertans through prevention and treatment services.

They want their prevention efforts to reach all Albertans, but their priority is helping children and youth be healthy and successful.

They provide treatment:

For people who are having problems with alcohol, drugs and gambling

For people affected by the alcohol, drug and gambling problems of others, such as their friends, family, and co-workers

Their approach is holistic and positive. They address the person, their environment and their daily challenges. They build on the strengths of the person, their family and their community. They know that people are most likely to change addictive behavior, or avoid it altogether, if they feel capable of managing their own lives-without abusing alcohol, other drugs, or gambling.

Their Services

Some of their services are offered through their AADAC offices. They also work with and fund dozens of community agencies. These agencies offer services that extend and complement the services AADAC provides. Their network of services includes:

Community education and prevention services


Outpatient counseling

Residential treatment

Residential support (halfway houses)

Youth treatment

Overnight shelter

Opiate dependency program (methadone maintenance)


A gambling crisis line

Prevention and Education

They develop our prevention programs in consultation with communities. We design them to fit each community. Their prevention programs aim to:

1.educate people about problems related to abuse of alcohol, other drugs and gambling

2.participate in building healthy, supportive communities people learn the skills they need to live without depending on addictive substances and activities

4.Training on topics related to addictions is available to helping professionals and in the workplace through AADAC Training and Communication Services.


They provide:

Individual/group counseling

Family counseling

Information and training for parents and professionals

Referral to 12-step programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Gamblers Anonymous

Resource materials for youth, schools, communities, the workplace, and seniors

Safe withdrawal


AADAC and its Funded Agencies offer special programs for men only, for women, for Native people and for youth. AADAC's Business and Industry Clinic serves company referring employees for residential treatment using a 12-step approach.


wide range of AADAC resources is available to Albertans. These include fact sheets, videos, brochures, manuals, posters and courses that address: prevention; assessment and treatment of problems with alcohol, other drugs and gambling; youth or seniors' concerns; and addictions research. AADAC also publishes a regular newsletter for professionals with an interest in the addictions field.

Their services are confidential

Most AADAC services are free

Fees are charged for the Business and Industry Clinic and for some training courses. Regular residential treatment clients pay for room and board only.

Crisis Line

24 hours, 7 days a week

Program/Service Description:

Offers a crisis line for the general public

Provides crisis counseling, referral, and peer support for youth

Provides crisis counseling and referral services for individuals with problems including alcohol or drug-related problems

Offers public education and prevention programming in the areas of alcohol/drug and gambling

Clientele/Target Served:

The general public. Specialized services provided for youth.

Referral Information:

Most clients' initial contact is through the crisis line; this is followed by crisis counseling and referral as required.

Appointments can be made by telephone; walk-in clients are also accepted.

Additional Notes:

The AADAC Program Consultant who works with this agency can be reached at AADAC's Funded Agencies and Problem Gambling Unit in Edmonton at 422-2230.

Program brochures are available directly from the agency.


First, M.B., M.D., (1995). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition. Washington, D.C., American Psychiatric Association.

J. Johnston, It's Killing Our Kids: The Growing Epidemic of Teenage Alcohol Abuse and Addiction (Waco, Tex.: Word, 1991)

L. Parrott III, Helping the Struggling Adolescent. Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1993.

Hart, A. D., Coping and Caring. Arcadia, California. Cope Publications, 1981.

The worldwide web.

The Fish Creek public library.

Pulse check magazine.

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