Acid rain is a serious problem with disastrous effects. Each day

this serious problem increases, many people believe that this issue

is too small to deal with right now this issue should be met head

on and solved before it is too late. In the following paragraphs I

will be discussing the impact has on the wildlife and how our

atmosphere is being destroyed by acid rain.

CAUSES

Acid rain is a cancer eating into the face of Eastern Canada and

the North Eastern United States. In Canada, the main sulphuric acid

sources are non©ferrous smelters and power generation. On both

sides of the border, cars and trucks are the main sources for

nitric acid(about 40% of the total), while power generating plants

and industrial commercial and residential fuel combustion together

contribute most of the rest. In the air, the sulphur dioxide and

nitrogen oxides can be transformed into sulphuric acid and nitric

acid, and air current can send them thousands of kilometres from

the source.When the acids fall to the earth in any form it will

have large impact on the growth or the preservation of certain

wildlife.

NO DEFENCE

Areas in Ontario mainly southern regions that are near the Great

Lakes, such substances as limestone or other known antacids can

neutralize acids entering the body of water thereby protecting it.

However, large areas of Ontario that are near the Pre©Cambrian

Shield, with quartzite or granite based geology and little top

soil, there is not enough buffering capacity to neutralize even

small amounts of acid falling on the soil and the lakes. Therefore

over time, the basic environment shifts from an alkaline to a

acidic one. This is why many lakes in the Muskoka,

Haliburton, Algonquin, Parry Sound and Manitoulin districts could

lose their fisheries if sulphur emissions are not reduced

substantially.

ACID

The average mean of pH rainfall in Ontario's Muskoka©Haliburton

lake country ranges between 3.95 and 4.38 about 40 times more

acidic than normal rainfall, while storms in Pennsilvania have

rainfall pH at 2.8 it almost has the same rating for vinegar.

Already 140 Ontario lakes are completely dead or dying. An

additional 48 000 are sensitive and vulnerable to acid rain due

to the surrounding concentrated acidic soils.O

ACID RAIN CONSISTS OF....?

Canada does not have as many people, power plants or automobiles as

the United States, and yet acid rain there has become so severe

that Canadian government officials called it the most pressing

environmental issue facing the nation. But it is important to bear

in mind that acid rain is only one segment, of the widespread

pollution of the atmosphere facing the world. Each year the global

atmosphere is on the receiving end of 20 billion tons of carbon

dioxide, 130 million tons of suffer dioxide, 97 million tons of

hydrocarbons, 53 million tons of nitrogen oxides, more than three

million tons of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, zinc and

other toxic metals, and a host of synthetic organic compounds

ranging from polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) to toxaphene and other

pesticides, a number of which may be capable of causing cancer,

birth defects, or genetic imbalances.

COST OF ACID RAIN

Interactions of pollutants can cause problems. In addition to

contributing to acid rain, nitrogen oxides can react with

hydrocarbons to produce ozone, a major air pollutant responsible in

the United States for annual losses of $2 billion to 4.5 billion

worth of wheat, corn, soyabeans, and peanuts. A wide range of

interactions can occur many unknown with toxic metals.

In Canada, Ontario alone has lost the fish in an estimated 4000

lakes and provincial authorities calculate that Ontario stands to

lose the fish in 48 500 more lakes within the next twenty years if

acid rain continues at the present rate.Ontario is not alone, on

Nova Scotia's Eastern most shores, almost every river flowing to

the Atlantic Ocean is poisoned with acid. Further threatening a $2

million a year fishing industry.

O

Acid rain is killing more than lakes. It can scar the leaves of

hardwood forest, wither ferns and lichens, accelerate the death of

coniferous needles, sterilize seeds, and weaken the forests to a

state that is vulnerable to disease infestation and decay. In the

soil the acid neutralizes chemicals vital for growth, strips others

from the soil and carries them to the lakes and literally retards

the respiration of the soil. The rate of forest growth in the White

Mountains of New Hampshire has declined 18% between 1956 and 1965,

time of increasingly intense acidic rainfall.

Acid rain no longer falls exclusively on the lakes, forest, and

thin soils of the Northeast it now covers half the continent.

EFFECTS

There is evidence that the rain is destroying the productivity of

the once rich soils themselves, like an overdose of chemical

fertilizer or a gigantic drenching of vinegar. The damage of such

overdosing may not be repairable or reversible. On some croplands,

tomatoes grow to only half their full weight, and the leaves of

radishes wither. Naturally it rains on cities too, eating away

stone monuments and concrete structures, and corroding the pipes

which channel the water away to the lakes and the cycle is

repeated. Paints and automobile paints have its life reduce due to

the pollution in the atmosphere speeding up the corrosion process.

In some communities the drinking water is laced with toxic metals

freed from metal pipes by the acidity. As if urban skies were not

already grey enough, typical visibility has declined from 10 to 4

miles, along the Eastern seaboard, as acid rain turns into smogs.

Also, now there are indicators that the components of acid rain are

a health risk, linked to human respiratory disease.

PREVENTION

However, the acidification of water supplies could result in

increased concentrations of metals in plumbing such as lead, copper

and zinc which could result in adverse health effects. After any

period of non©use, water taps at summer cottages or ski chalets

they should run the taps for at least 60 seconds to flush any

excess debris.

O

STATISTICS

Although there is very little data, the evidence indicates that in

the last twenty to thirty years the acidity of rain has increased

in many parts of the United States. Presently, the United States

annually discharges more than 26 million tons of suffer dioxide

into the atmosphere. Just three states, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois

are responsible for nearly a quarter of this total. Overall, two?thirds of the suffer dioxide into the atmosphere over the United

States comes from coal©fired and oil fired plants. Industrial

boilers, smelters, and refineries contribute 26%; commercial

institutions and residences 5%; and transportation 3%. The outlook

for future emissions of suffer dioxide is not a bright one. Between

now and the year 2000, United States utilities are expected to

double the amount of coal they burn. The United States currently

pumps some 23 million tons of nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere

in the course of the year.

Transportation sources account for 40%; power plants, 30%;

industrial sources, 25%; and commercial institutions and residues,

5%. What makes these figures particularly distributing is that

nitrogen oxide emissions have tripled in the last thirty years.

FINAL THOUGHTS

Acid rain is very real and a very threatening problem. Action by

one government is not enough. In order for things to be done we

need to find a way to work together on this for at least a

reduction in the contaminates contributing to acid rain. Although

there are right steps in the right directions but the government

should be cracking down on factories not using the best filtering

systems when incinerating or if the factory is giving off any other

dangerous fumes. I would like to express this question to you, the

public:WOULD YOU RATHER PAY A LITTLE NOW OR A LOT LATER?

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