The Romans and Greeks both gave many things to Western Civilization. Although the Romans copied many aspects Greek culture, they also made distinct contributions.
Greece had the first democracy. All citizens could participate in the government. Rome built on the Greek democratic government and established a sharing of the administration with checks and balances. Both Greeks and Romans believed in justice and the equality of people to a certain extent. The Greeks allowed all citizens, rich and poor, to participate in the government. Romans gradually gave the Plebeians, the working class, more rights until they were equal with the Patricians. The Assembly of Tribes and the Tribunes were Plebeians.
The Greeks started philosophy seeking true knowledge. The Cynics, Skeptics, and Epicureans searched for happiness in simplicity, spiritual, and intellectual activities. The Stoics, believing in the equality of all people, were influential in both Rome and Greece. All of these philosophies have contributed to modern thought. The Greeks had a polytheistic religion. They believed that many anthropomorphic deities that ruled over them in daily life. Some Romans also still believed this. In the rule of Rome, Christianity became widespread. This is a monotheistic religion in which there is one perfect God.
Greece and Rome have also made tremendous contributions to our civilization with art and architecture. The Greeks invented the column, the arch, and the dome. The Romans took these Greek features with some of their own, such as a strong new concrete, and created marvelous structures. Both civilizations architecture have been influential and served as examples those following them. The Greek Parthenon is one of the most famous buildings in the world and lays on the acropolis of Athens. Some great Roman structures are the Pantheon and the Colosseum.
Rome produced many works of art and architecture, created Christianity, and added on to Greek philosophy and government system. Rome augmented these, used them, and in doing so passed them on. Greece and Rome have worked together to provide all subsequent civilizations with substantial contributions.