4. discuss the values which helped the Romans build an empire from a city-state.From a city-state to Roman Empire, the values such as individualism and Greek idea helped the Romans build an empire from a city-state. During a city-state period, the Romans were very concerned about maintaining the customs or traditions of their ancestors. They emphasize parental authority and, above all, their obligations to the state. The highest virtue was pietas the dutiful execution of one s obligations to one s fellow citizens, to the gods and to the state. However, by the second century BC the creation of an empire had begun to weaken the old values. There was more emphasis on individualism and less on collective well-being. After the destruction of Carthage, the Romans no longer had any strong enemies to challenge them. As a result, they faded the necessity of citizenship or duty.

Moreover, Greek ideas influence the change from a city-state to Roman Empire. Including luxury and homosexual practice, Greek ideas weakened old Roman values and helped the Romans build the Roman Empire with new values. Two examples from the second century demonstrate this well. Marcus Cato the Elder (234-149B.C.) realized that Greek was becoming a necessity for Roman political life. In addition, Scipio Aemilianus (185-129 BC) accepted Rome s growing urbanization as it became the center of the Mediterranean world and was consequently more open to the Greeks as well. By accepting Greek ideas, the old Roman values weaken, and the Roman society moved to new society, Roman empire. In brief, the values which people believe play an enormous role on the change of certain society. Individualism and Greek idea weaken the old Roman values and led to new

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