Philosophy Essays & Term Papers

211 total

The field of ethics, also called moral philosophy, involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior. Philosophers today usually divide ethical theories into three general subject areas: metaethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics. Metaethics investigates where our ethical principles come from, and what they mean. Metaethical answers to questions are focused on the issues of universal truths, the will of God, the role of reason in ethical ju

In response to problems surrounding the ascription of beliefs, Daniel Dennett developed his essay True Believers, where he outlined an intentionalist theory. My intent in this paper is to explain his ideas and defend on of his presuppositions, namely, that most of what people believe is true. First I will briefly explain intentionalism and point out why Dennett feels that his syst3em is so useful. Then I will explain the necessary pretension that most beliefs ascribed are true and expla

Aristotle, another great Greek philosopher, established many theories in the field of ethics and psychology. As a student of Plato at the academy, Aristotle also theorized many inquiries about virtue. In this question we want to some how connect his ideas of psychology to his ideas of ethics. In doing this we must set out his main points than mesh them in some common bond. Aristotle s Notion of Virtue According to Aristotle, virtue primarily involves rationality and the use of a person's rati

My Moral Philosophies As I answered the eight questions about my own moral philosophies I realized that before this I had no idea. It had never even crossed my mind. I would just go about my day-to-day life, make my decisions and move right a long with no regard to where they were coming from. This paper alone has changed the way I analyze my actions not to mention my understanding of them. Coming from a split family I was bombarded with contradictory views and morals. My father, a we

tatement of philosophy The education mission of the philosophy and religion department serves the general studies core and the major. The department takes seriously its obligation to introduce general studies students to philosophy and religion as humanities disciplines. All courses at the 100 and 200 level are open to and designed for students at different stages of their general education, yet the department also seeks to offer a balanced array of courses for majors and minors.

Jean-Paul Sartre and Existentialism Jean-Paul Sartre . . . the name is one of the most popular in modern philosophy. But who was he? What did he write and what were his works about? What was his role with regard to Existentialism? What is Existentialism, really? What life influences affected the person as whom he became famous? How would Sartre assess various social topics that we face today? What are the problems with Sartre's view of Existentialism and existence in general? These ar

Philosophy of the Development of the Hydrogen Bomb Introduction: Dr. V and Dr. W did an excellent job in explaining the chemical makings of and the moral issues of the development of the hydrogen bomb and other nuclear weapons in their class lectures. Based on their lectures and the text, Dark Sun, The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb, I will explain my moral beliefs on the development, making and current existence of this terrifying, destructive military weapon, the hydrogen bomb. My philosoph

Anarchy: noun. 1. Absence of any form of political authority. 2. Political disorder and confusion. 3. Absence of any cohering principle, as a common standard or purpose. [Greek anarkhia, without a ruler] (American Heritage Dictionary). Anarchy is a political philosophy shrouded in misconception. This misconception is caused by the diversity of the subject of anarchism itself, which cannot be characterized by simple slogans or television plugs. In theory, anarchy provides the most personal free

On Liberty is a work by John Stuart Mill, which is focused on proving that liberty is valuable to the individual, and society as a whole. By granting certain individual rights and freedoms, it would ensure citizens the opportunity to fully maximize their own self-development. This self-development would also have wide ranging social benefits. Although his supposition introduces many interesting ideas they are only theoretical they could not be applied in a practical ideology. He does not att

Joseph F. Fletcher - Situation Ethics and it’s relationship to Idolatry In 1991, when Joseph F. Fletcher passed away at the ripe old age of 86 (ref 1) there were very few present to observe his passing. There are not many people who even recognize his name. This was a man who probably influenced modern society as much as Charles Darwin or Sigmund Freud. Certain books and teachers can have a great impact on society. Charles Darwin wrote " The Origin of the Species" and started a w

Is this the beginning, middle, or end of our existence? Have we lived before in another time, another place? What awaits us when we die? Is the physical being all there really is to our existence; or is the spirit or soul what really makes us who we are? There is an abundance of case studies that suggest there is some sort of life after we die. Some from the not-so credible sources and others that seem much more believable. We will all find the answer when we die. Can we find the

The Errancy of Fundamentalism Disproves the God of the Bible 1. Introduction This essay will investigate the often-made claim from Christians, that the Bible is the inspired word of god, a corollary of which is that it is perfectly without error. This view is exemplified by the following statement of Jimmy Swaggart, a Pentecostal pastor: "One of the most basic tenants of the Christian faith is that the Scriptures are inerrant. Because the Bible is God's Word, it is entirely error-free." (Sw

Throughout 'On Certainty', Wittgenstein's aim is to remove thefalse pictures created by traditional philosophers, by uncoveringthe true way that our language functions in our lives, andshowing the irreconcilable difference between this and the waythat philosophers use language in different situations. WhileWittgenstein criticises the theories of traditional philosophers,he himself does not come up with an alternative theory, as it isthe theorising of philosophers that he sees as creating

Philosophy is the oldest form of systematic, scholarly inquiry. The name comes from the Greek philosophos, "lover of wisdom." The term, however, has acquired several related meanings: (1) the study of the truths or principles underlying all knowledge, being, and reality; (2) a particular system of philosophical doctrine; (3) the critical evaluation of such fundamental doctrines; (4) the study of the principles of a particular branch of knowledge; (5) a system of principles for guidance

Essay Outline (Plan) Essay Topic Critical Thinking Skills Introduction  briefly define the topic Body of Essay  defining critical thinking with more details  comparing & contrasting the use of thinking skills for study and for business  stating how, in the writer s opinion, these skills can best be acquired  outlining a personal plan for acquiring these skills Conclusion  summarizing the essay and making a personal comment Critic

As adolescents growing up in such turbulent times, it is often difficult for persons of my young age to make decisions that are both rational and moral. I have watched a countless number of my peers make decisions that they understood to be immoral. Whether or not they were simply trying to “fit in” or avoid peer pressure, I cannot say. I can only say that I observed this with sadness. For I only wish that my friends could have the strength to believe in their morals, values

What is the value of Philosophy? The word “philosophy” is derived from two ancient Greek words, “philos” meaning ‘love of’ and “sophia” meaning ‘wisdom’. Philosophers are lovers of wisdom. They have had the time and resources to sit back and wonder about what things really are like when all the pieces are fitted into one final accounting. The history of philosophy is generally divided into four stages or periods. Ancient philosophy covers Greek and Roman philosop

In Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy, he offers two main arguments from which he concludes the existence of God. In the Third Meditation, Descartes proposes his metaphysical argument, which states that God must exist, because his real existence is the only cause, which could have produced Descartes’ own idea of God. In the Fifth Meditation, Descartes contends that existence is contained in God’s essence, so a non-existent God is by definition, a contradiction. This pape

Plato vs. Materialists Plato was concerned with Epistemology. Epistemology deals with the possibilities and limits of human knowledge. It tries to arrive at a knowledge of knowledge itself. It tries to answer such questions as: Is the world as people perceive it the basic reality, or do people perceive only appearances that conceal basic reality? Knowledge may be regarded as having two parts. There is, first of all, what one perceives using the five senses. Next there is the way these p

Searching for Utopia After the French Revolution many men began a search for a utopian society, one which would allow justice and happiness for all who resided there. It was not only a search for these men, but a lifelong goal, for if such a place created many of life's problems would disappear. In order to make this vision come to life, the principles and laws that would create such a society must be understood. It was men such as Saint-Simon, Fourier, Jefferson, Owen, Bentham, Malthus an

Happiness, to Aristotle, is a term for which much exactitude must be made. He understands that, “Happiness both the refined and the few call it, but about the nature of this Happiness, men dispute.” As such, he goes to great lengths to attain a fairly accurate accounting of what he sees as Happiness. He begins by illustrating that Happiness is an End, establishes what he finds the work of Man to be, sets conditions on being happy, and then explains where in Man the cultivati

Logic is the study of necessary truths and of systematic methods for clearly expressing and rigourously demonstrating such truths. THERE can be no doubt that all our knowledge begins with experience. For how should our faculty of knowledge be awakened into action did not objects affecting our senses partly of themselves produce representations, partly arouse the activity of our understanding to compare these representations, and, by combining or separating them, work up the raw material of th

The Rationalism of Descartes and Leibniz Although philosophy rarely alters its direction and mood with sudden swings, there are times when its new concerns and emphases clearly separate it from its immediate past. Such was the case with seventeenth-century Continental rationalism, whose founder was Rene Descartes and whose new program initiated what is called modern philosophy. In a sense, much of what the Continental rationalists set out to do had already been attempted by the medieva

Creationism vs. Evolution- In my short life on this planet I have come to question things that many take upon blind faith. We all know that we must some day die; yet we continuously deny the forces at work inside ourselves, which want to search out the answers of what may or may not come after. It is far easier for humanity to accept that they will go to a safe haven and be rewarded for their lives with pleasures and fantasies of an unfathomable scale than to question the existenc

My Philosophy of Balance Balance. Our world depends upon it physically, psychologically, and spiritually. This principle, although easy to overlook, is the foundation of my personal philosophy. Without balance there is no harmony, no conflict and no growth. Any productive result, any achievement, any strength is useless without it. The balance in my world is achieved by these fundamental beliefs: God exists, and yet evil exists; all humanity does have free will and all these beliefs

Living in the Face of Death Life was good... Life was good until... Life was good until death. Death was bad... Death was bad until... Death was bad until life. ___________________________________________ She sat there mourning the death of her husband. He had lain there dying from cancer for a period of time to painful to remember. Now he was gone—the space left behind a haunting reminder of what had once been. Oh soul, which lives in the shadow of death, raise your h

Descartes is considered to be the father of modern Western philosophy, he was a man who was both loved and hated at the same time. Descartes discusses many topics during his time and one of them was his Discourse on the Method of rightly conducting ones reason and seeking the truth in the sciences. There are six parts to the Discourse and Part One is about Descartes education and his philosophical views on good sense. Method is defined as the rules by which our powers of intuition and deduc

Let us again return to the good we are seeking, and ask what it can be. It seems different in different actions and arts; it is different in medicine, in strategy, and in the other arts likewise. What then is the good of each? Surely that for whose sake everything else is done. In medicine this is health, in strategy victory, in architecture a house, in any other sphere something else, and in every action and pursuit the end; for it is for the sake of this that all men do whatever

Rousseau's profound insight can be found in almost every trace of modern philosophy today. Somewhat complicated and ambiguous, Rousseau's general philosophy tried to grasp an emotional and passionate side of man which he felt was left out of most previous philosophical thinking. In his early writing, Rousseau contended that man is essentially good, a "noble savage" when in the state of nature (the state of all the other animals, and the condition man was in before the creation of civilizatio

1) Introduction Through out history, as man progressed from a primitive animal to a "human being" capable of thought and reason, mankind has had to throw questions about the meaning of our own existence to ourselves. Out of those trail of thoughts appeared religion, art, and philosophy, the fundamental process of questioning about existence. Who we are, how we came to be, where we are going, what the most ideal state is....... All these questions had to be asked and if no

1) Introduction Through out history, as man progressed from a primitive animal to a "human being" capable of thought and reason, mankind has had to throw questions about the meaning of our own existence to ourselves. Out of those trail of thoughts appeared religion, art, and philosophy, the fundamental process of questioning about existence. Who we are, how we came to be, where we are going, what the most ideal state is....... All these questions had to be asked and if not given a defi

The Republic is one of the finest examples of a Platonic dialog. The subject matter discussed therein is difficult to summarize, at best. Covering subjects such as politics, the fine arts, education, it is no wonder so many have written volumes analyzing its various aspects. However, the driving force behind the many discussions is pursuit of the answer to the simple, yet evasive question, "What is justice?" The heart of the debate on justice begins when, for a "fine", the Sophist Thrasyma

Jeffrey Bass Professor Willis English 250, Section 1 21 November 2001 According to Aristotle, a tragedy is “an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of action, not of narrative; with incidents arousing pity and fear, wherewith to accomplish its catharsis of such emotions”(Nahm 7). Aristotle catego

Georg Wihelm Friedrich Hegel 1770- 1831 German Idealist Hegel was born in Stuttgart on August 27, 1770, which is now part of Germany. Hegel was the son of a revenue officer with the civil service. He studied the Greek and Roman classics while attending the Stuttgart preparatory school. His father wanted and encouraged him to join the clergy, however while attending a university seminar Hegel became friends with the poet H lderlin and the philosopher Friedrich von Schelling. After t

In Moravia in 1592, Comenius, one of the greatest educational theorists to date, was brought into life. From his father he received ordinary elementary and grammar school education. While attending school the incompetence of his teachers drove him to become a school reformer. Still today, 300 years later, we find his teachings to be the origins of contemporary or recent trends of thought. Comenius’s theories can be seen today through the relatively young philosophy of progressivism.

To Conform or Not? Socrates- A Struggle When one is pondering the question, what do the laws mean by stating that Socrates needed to be obedient because of all that the laws have done for him, you can find the meaning in the text of the Crito. The law states, that if they were not there, Socrates would not have been born. Because it was by them, that his mother and father were married. The laws also states that if it were not for them, Socrates would not be as educated as he was. Beca

Allegory of the Cave In Books II and III of The Republic, Socrates sets the stage for a view of education for the warriors in the culture, asserting a need for the study of different disciplines, including art and athletics. Though this provides a sense of Plato's perspective on education, his outlining of educational premises in Book VII, including his view of rational though, education, and the responsibilities of both the student and the teacher in his "Allegory of the Cave"

Allegory of the Cave In Books II and III of The Republic, Socrates sets the stage for a view of education for the warriors in the culture, asserting a need for the study of different disciplines, including art and athletics. Though this provides a sense of Plato's perspective on education, his outlining of educational premises in Book VII, including his view of rational though, education, and the responsibilities of both the student and the teacher in his "Allegory of the Cave" defines

In my opinion, the school s goals should begin with providing students the necessary knowledge and experiences to help contribute to our society. The school needs to make its best effort to keep the students interested in what they are doing so they don t get bored and lose interest in what they are working to accomplish. Numerous extracurricular activities should be provided so that the student s can get involved with their school in many different ways. Somehow, school needs to become a p

Government is an interesting concept developed by humans in order to come together and form a better way of life. Government often times has stepped in to judge what this better way of life should be. In current times, there has been the near censorship of art and in the past theatrical world, the morals of a community are mandated by government. Ever since people came out of the state of nature and started forming governments, the role of that government has been always been debate

The Renaissance Humanistic Concept of Man. Each century brings something new into this world. Some ages thus become prominent, others don’t seem to contribute a lot to the humanity. The Renaissance became the symbol of awakening, the symbol of excellence and rebirth. It gave birth to the doctrines and principles that dominate the philosophy up until nowadays. Humanism developed as one of the principal philosophical concepts of Renaissance. What does this concept mean, why is it so

CONFUCIUS As Confucius' philosophy still remains in the heart of many Chinese people. His images of the greatest professional teacher of all time, the greatest philosopher in Chinese history and his influence toward the future and the past 2000 years of Chinese civilization has made his thought the essence of the Chinese culture. He always said the importance of teaching could change the future of the civilization. And he also encouraged his students to explore the various things to learn,

As Confucius' philosophy still remains in the heart of many Chinese people. His images of the greatest professional teacher of all time, the greatest philosopher in Chinese history and his influence toward the future and the past 2000 years of Chinese civilization has made his thought the essence of the Chinese culture. He always said the importance of teaching could change the future of the civilization. And he also encouraged his students to explore the various things to learn, but be

In Mary Louise Pratt s Arts of the Contact Zone , she discusses the association of a less powerful civilization, the Andean s, and a powerful, dominant civilization, the Spanish. The Spaniards lack of knowledge of the Andean civilization prevented them from realizing their true culture and made them assume that the Andean s were an ignorant people. Poma s learning of the Spanish culture enabled him to act as a messenger between the two civilizations and thus gain more power in relating inf

The Republic Most normal individuals in the modern world would assume that all books written, not published, by man are based on either a portion of the author’s imagination, an event (biased or non-biased) in either history or during the life of the author, a straight-out autobiography, or a generalized biography of another person they once knew. However, this philosophical novel fits none of the descriptions above. The book is actually an in-depth recording of a philosophy contest

Socrates thought is that a rhapsode speaks not from knowledge but from inspiration, his thoughts being ‘breathed into’ him without the use of his own understanding at all. Using the analogy of a magnet, with the power to draw one rhapsode ring to itself, and through that another, and another, Socrates says that Homer himself had no knowledge of his own writing his poetry, but was divinely possessed. Every rhapsodes are also divinely possessed both when they recite poetry and when th

The role and significance of education with regard to political and social institutions is a subject that has interested political philosophers for millennia. In particular, the views of the ancient Greek philosopher Plato, as evidenced in The Republic, and of the pre-Romantic philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau in his Discourse on the Arts and Sciences, present a striking juxtaposition of the two extremes of the ongoing philosophical and political debate over the function and value of educatio

93 THE PHILOSOPHY OF ART FROM HUME TO HEGEL Outline and Discuss Kant's conception of Genius As part of his Critique of the Aesthetic Judgement, Kant sets out to explain what constitutes a fine work of art, and in doing so he asserts that "fine arts must necessarily be regarded as arts of genius." (page 168, 'The Critique of Judgement', Immanuel Kant). He then goes on to justify this, and to explain what genius consists of, and how a work of genius is arrived at. Kant begins by s

One of the first and most persuasive advocates of modern capitalism was Adam Smith. The most serious challenge to Adam Smith and his followers came from Karl Marx, a nineteenth century German. The son of a Prussian lawyer, the methodical Marx was a worthy and resourceful opponent. He unfolded his economic theories in his monumental Das Kapital, a work on which he spent eighteen years of research and writing. Marx s main objection to the capitalistic system was that it was unfair to workers

What is enlightenment? Immanuel Kant attempts to clarify the meaning of enlightenment while composing the essay, “What is Enlightenment?”. This document was written in response to political and social changes brought about by King Frederick of Prussia. The goal of Kant’s essay was to discuss what the nature of enlightenment was. It also taught one how enlightenment can be brought about in the general public. Kant explains that, “enlightenment is man’s rel