Philosophy Essays & Term Papers

211 total

Essay I Relativism: The Tangible Theory Since the beginning of rational thought, philosophers have searched for the true meaning of morality. Many theorists have attempted to answer this question with reasoning, in an attempt to find a universal set of rules, or a way to distinguish right from wrong. Some theorists believe that this question is best answered by a single moral standard, while others debate if there can be a single solution. Cultural Relativism ex

Transcendentalism: The Philosophy of the Mind Transcendentalism is the view that the basic truth of the universe lies beyond the knowledge obtained from the senses, a knowledge that transcendentalists regard as the mere appearance of things (Adventures 162). Transcendentalists believe the mind is where ideas are formed. The transcendentalist ideas of God, man, and the universe were not all original, but were a combination of other

Question: Can scepticism be defended, perhaps in a limited form ? 1. Introduction This essay centres around what it means to know something is true and also why it is important to distinguish between what you know and do not or can not know. The sceptic in challenging the possibility of knowing anything challenges the basis on which all epistemology is based. It is from this attack on epistemology that the defence of scepticism is seen. 2. Strong Scepticism

Two Brands of Nihilism As philosopher and poet Nietzsche's work is not easily conformable to the traditional schools of thought within philosophy. However, an unmistakable concern with the role of religion and values penetrates much of his work. Contrary to the tradition before him, Nietzsche launches vicious diatribes against Christianity and the dualistic philosophies he finds essentially life denying. Despite his early tutelage under the influence of

"One death, and a thousand lives in exchange--it's simple arithmetic." -Raskolnikov Raskolnikov's mathematical evaluation of the moral dilemma presented to him in Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment exemplifies the empirical view of utilitarianism. Utilitarianism attempts to distinguish between right and wrong by measuring a decision based on its calculated worth. Raskolnikov appears to employ the fundamentals of utilitarianism by pitting the

Who is to Blame The doctrine of "assumption of risk" clearly defines the responsibility of all voluntary actions taken on by individuals, independent of the inherent risk or danger involved with such actions. Are we only to assume responsibility for the positive outcomes of our actions, without also accepting the negative outcomes as well? Most individuals only claim responsibility in cases in which they are fully responsible for their actions. Living within a count

By: Alan Eugene Sims, Jr. Is Man Inherently Good, Bad, Both? Psychologists often struggle with the question does man have inherently good characteristics, or do they lead to the negative. Families struggle with this question because their son has turned into a murderer, and I am also struggling with this question right now. What makes a man act the way he does? Is it nature, hormone imbalances, or the way he is raised? Man's intrinsic characteristics can be

The major new element in world market competition is quality. During the 1970's and 1980's, the Japanese and their U.S. companies demonstrated that high quality is achievable at lower costs and greater customer satisfaction. It was the result of using the management principles of total quality management (TQM). More and more U.S. companies have demonstrated that such achievements are possible Using TQM as a new way to manage. Such companies also found that they were recognized

Economics Paper Introduction How easy is it for smaller business men to achieve the Aamerican dream. How to stop corporate domination. The question I pose to you is " Is the American Dream still achievable?" The opportunity is there but for what select few is the opportunity available to. If the resources are out there but I can't tap into the resources they rae of no use to me. (Make note of the fact that we live in a market economy. Body Just about every definition of the "ma

Some have argued abortion is morally wrong because a fetus has a right to life. Yet, some of these people would make an exception in the case of rape. This stance is contradictory if there is a strict deontological position on "right to life" if it assumes that a fetus is a living person. It is unreasonable to change this criterion in cases of rape if we are to live by a strict interpretation of right to life, assuming the fetus is living. But why does rape cause some to change their posit

Religion serves to both exclude and include other people based on their willingness to accept or adopt that religion. When people are within the religion, they are already part of a community of others sharing their beliefs and including each other in their rituals. When a subculture or secular belief meets a religious assembly, the religious assembly separates the subculture into two collections: those who can and will be converted and those who will not. Of those who can and will, the reli

The central question of legal euthanasia is whether any form of euthanasia is morally permissible. Many defenders of euthanasia justify their positions by appealing to the values of liberty, autonomy, and self-determination. They argue that rational, competent adults should have the right to make responsible decisions regarding their own lives, provided they respect others' right to self-determination. Respecting one's right to self-determination includes allowing him or her to commit euthana

There are many problems right now in the society. Some of these problems can be easily solved, or can be impossible to solve depending how bad it is. Many people think these problems should be solved by the governments, since they are in charge. But we can also solve these problems if we get together. Not all the problems, but some that can be solved. I think the three major problems in the society today are: unemployment, violence, and pollution. The first problem in the society

Technology-specifically the Internet-is making the world a smaller and smaller place. Our world has become a "global village", now that communication is instantaneous. The world is only as far away as the computer. People are trading ideas and communicating faster than any other time in history. Countries and markets are trading people and business as well. However, since its now becoming more common to come into contact with people from different sides of the globe, we're also coming i

Plato Plato was born about 429 BC. He came of an Athenian family that was aristocratic on both sides. His father, Ariston, was believed to have descended from the early kings of Athens. Perictione, his mother, was distantly related to the 6th- century BC lawmaker Solon. When Plato was a child, his father died, and his mother married Pyrilampes, who was an associate of the statesman Pericles. It is said that his original name was Aristocles, be we are told that his wrestling instructor named

Hegel's theory of dialectic states that every society has a thesis, this thesis is the basis of what the society was built on, and is what makes it dominant or not. So, what has made America the dominant society in the twentieth century? Hegel's dialectic also states that every society has an antithesis, which is the opposite of the thesis and replaces it as the driving force behind the society. Which asks the question, what will be the antithesis to the American thesis

Thomas Hobbes and John Locke were two philosophers with completely different ideas. One tended to be more conservative and prejudice, whilst the other was free of spirit and open-minded. However, they were both working towards the same goal: an ideal way to live life. Thomas Hobbes first and foremost believed that all people all self-serving, prudent, and unjust, and that people and nations fought only for their own good. He also felt that people are naturally wicked. If left alone, the

.2 Compare Hobbes and Machiavelli on Human Nature. What is the role of Fear in each? Thomas Hobbes and Machiavelli shared a commonality in the time period in which they each lived. Separated by approximately 100 years, both thinkers were focusing on political theory. Hobbes' theory tended to focus on the social contract between a people and its government. Machiavelli's theory focused on the attributes that formed a successful ruler. Examining both theories, a comparison is evident in that

Why Homosexuality is Abnormal" Michael Levin Levin gives two claims to support his views of homosexuality. Homosexuality is abnormal, therefore it is undesirable. Levin also gives explanation to why unhappiness is tied to the misuse of body parts. Levin uses Theory of Natural Selection as a foundation to prove his claim that the misuse of body parts is abnormal and it is directly correlated with unhappiness. Nature has a specific function for everybody part, the proper use of body parts

What justifies the authority of government? Under what conditions is revolution against that government justified? How does Locke's answer to the previous differ from Hobbes's? What difference in their "social contract" theories results in that difference? Each of these questions will be addressed in order to further understand the governmental philosophies of the "Dynamic Duo" and their implications. Citizens of the United States have enjoyed long-standing protection courtesy of their gove

Holism is the belief that moral characteristics of an individual are entirely determined by the social and cultural group of which they are members. Holism is based on the notion that the self is merely a "vehicle by which society and culture express themselves" (Fay, 50). The theory suggests that since moral principles vary from culture to culture, we must suspend judgement of individuals because they are not responsible for their own beliefs. Brian Fay refutes the holistic assumption and ar

It was middle of the night and Dave was sound asleep. The house was completely quiet. All of a sudden his eyes popped open and he sat straight up in bed. His breathing came in short gasps as he looked around the room. "What was that?" he asked himself. "That dream...what did it mean?" Dreams are something that happen to everyone. Babies dream, as well as teenagers, adults, and animals. During the night, approximately every 90 minutes during a cycle called Rapid Eye Movement, or REM

AN UNEXAMIND LIFE IS NOT WORTH LIVING "The unexamined life is not worth living." (Apology, p. 41) Socrates held him self up to this standard by allowing the courts to take his life because they would not allow him to continue his quest set forth by the Oracle. An unexamined life would be just coasting through and not making any decisions or asking any questions. Socrates could not see a point in living if you were unable to ask questions and challenge your way of thinking. An examined life

John Locke was an English philosopher. He was born at Wrington, Somerset, on August 29, 1932. He had attended the University of Oxford. Locke had spent his boyhood in Beluton, near the village of Pensford. But the house no longer stands there. Locke's parents, John Locke and Agnes Keene, were married in 1630 and John was said to be a pious woman and Locke speaks of her with affection. But the greater influenced seems to be from his father. Locke's father was a Puritan lawyer who fought for Cromw

INTRODUCTION: The immortal sound of music has for generations held the world in awe. Whether it be classical music, rock and roll, or hip-hip, the grasp of music over the human soul will not, and can never be loosened. From the onset of time music has become a messenger to the public, sending critical messages to the people through lyrics. Yet unfortunately, this message has become altered, and as a result some artists look at music not as a messenger to the people but as a commodity for th

Willard Van Orman Quine "If pressed to supplement Tweedledee's ostensive definition of logic with a discursive definition of the same subject, I would say that logic is the systematic study of the logical truths. Pressed further, I would say that a sentence is logically true if all sentences with its grammatical structure are true ("Quotations from the Writings of Willard Van Orman Quine.")." Often described as the foremost American philosopher of the twentieth century, Willard Van Orma

Because of the new wave of genetic technology there has been a strengthening in the eugenics movement. Although the ideals still generally remain the same, they have morphed into a new movement that seems more convincing for many people who live in this new century. Terms such as "positive" and "negative" eugenics are used to try to differenciate between old and new ideas, but it seems that the bottom line still remains the same and that raises many ethical questions. Things like prenatal

ETHICS: THE RIGHTS OF PRISONERS an address to my grandfather One question that comes to mind when considering the incarceration of prisoners is how much is too much punishment? Many agree that criminals deserve the punishment that was set for them, but many are not aware of the conditions and atrocities that run rampant through these prisons across the world. Evenso, should these criminals take whats coming to them? or are these conditions violating rights that every human being deserve

"Plato the Philosopher" Plato was born in 427 BC and died in 347 BC. In his early life Plato was exposed to war service and political ambitions. However, he was never really sorrowful towards t the Athenian democracy and he could not join wholeheartedly in its government. He was a devoted follower of Socrates, whose disciple he became in 409, BC and the execution of that philosopher by the democrats in 399 BC was a crushing blow.

Final Exam: 3) Critically assess the use of the charge that someone has committed the genetic fallacy. Select some representative example and use that as your foil. A fallacy is, very generally, an error in reasoning. This differs from a factual error, which is simply being wrong about the facts. To be more specific, a fallacy is an argument in which the premises given for the conclusion do not provide the needed degree of support. A Genetic Fallacy is a line of reasoning in which a

Empiricism, Rationalism, and Pragmatism, as theories of knowledge, attempt to prove the nature of reality and what can be considered true or real. All three of these philosophies, however, encounter problems when attempting to prove the nature of reality. How these different philosophies overcome obstacles in their attempt to prove the nature of reality is a factor in discriminating between the three. In the end, however, in all three, a leap of faith must be taken in order to completely acce

Princes, Generosity, and Miserliness I am unable to express the love with which he will be received in all those provinces which have suffered under these foreign invasions, with what thirst for vengeance, with what persistent faith, with what passion, with what tears. What doors would be closed to him? What people would deny his obedience? What Italian would refuse him homage? This barbarous dominion is repugnant to everyone! -from The Prince, by Niccolo Machiavelli Niccolo Machiavelli

Greg Thornton Nancy Allen, Howard Jones English II, World History February 19, 1998 Anarchists in History Anarchy is one of the most misdefined words in the English language. Many people believe it means total chaos. It is actually the idea that any form of government is unnecessary and undesirable. Although anarchism is often despised, anarchists have helped shape the lives and governments of today's world. Anarchism has been around longer than most can recall. There is evide

Hi. As most of you know me, I am erata - the Greek mythological muse for love poetry and music. I am also Courtney - a young 15-year old experiencing life through misty blue eyes. I can be categorized as a romantic, an idealist, a passionate liberal, an empiricist, a naturalistic thinker. I am one who asserts the freedom of man and the divinity of the whole. Ideas shape our world. The world that people actually see it is given form by these ideas and is thus less real because it is always changi

Existentialism: A WorldView Existentialistic thought is predominately a 20th century revelation. As a philosophy, it states that man possesses free will over his fate and the direction he wants his life to take. Those who follow this believe they are in a world that does not always make sense, a world that is filled with uncertainty where well intended actions can become obscure and chaotic. This belief is contrary to Christian morality in that it asserts the complete individualism and u

Soren Kierkegaard Soren Aabe Kierkegard was a Danish philosopher and religious thinker. He was born in Copenhagen on May 5, 1813. He was the youngest of 7 children. Kierkagaard had a disability that restricted him from playing with kids his own age. Because of this, he spent a lot of time with his father. His father was a clothes merchant, who became quite wealthy and retired. He held meetings at their home with professors from the University of Copenhagen, the university Kierkagaad wou

Positivism Positivism is the belief that "scientific naturalism" is the foundation of knowledge and truth. Leszek Kolakowski wrote "Positivism is a normative attitude, regulating how we are to use such terms as knowledge , science , cognition , and information . Positivism rejects the theories of theology and metaphysics because they don t have proof that they are true. Positivism is a philosophy that has many theories for the whole spectrum of life. They include the theory of knowledge a

1818-83, German social philosopher and revolutionary; with Friedrich Engels, a founder of modern Socialism and Communism. The son of a lawyer, he studied law and philosophy; he rejected the idealism of G.W.F. Hegel but was influenced by Ludwig Feuerbach and Moses Hess. His editorship (1842-43) of the Rheinische Zeitung ended when the paper was suppressed. In 1844 he met Engels in Paris, beginning a lifelong collaboration. With Engels he wrote the Communist Manifesto (1848) and o

In Twilight of the Idols Nietzsche writes, "My objection against the whole of sociology in England and France remains that it knows from experience only the forms of decay, and with perfect innocence accepts its instincts of decay as the norm of sociological value-judgments. The decline of life, the decrease in the power to organize, that is to tear open clefts, subordinate and super-ordinate -- all this has been formulated as the ideal in contemporary sociology." (p 541). The culture o

Throughout the semester, I have studied many social issues in light of philosophy. One of these highly controversial social issues deals with the subject of capital punishment. It is unfortunate, but our society has evolved to the point where capital punishment has become a necessary function of modern society. Simply stated, capital punishment is the execution of criminals, for committing crimes, which are regarded as so heinous, that the only acceptable punishment is per

Use your browser back button to go back to the search results. Click here to return to the home page. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The Individual vs Society Word Count: 1270 Words. Subject areas: Sociology, Philosophy The early twentieth century marked a period of rapid industrial and technological change in a society which began to redefine the roles of the individual and society. Max Weber and Sigmund Freud were two revolut

Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary defines existentialism as “a chiefly 20th century philosophical movement embracing diverse doctrines but centering on analysis of individual existence in an unfathomable universe and the plight of the individual who must assume ultimate responsibility for his acts of free will without any certain knowledge of what is right or wrong or good or bad” (407). Without question existentialism is extremely complicated and almost incomprehensible. However

Compare and contrast Marx and WeberDuring the nineteenth century, Karl Marx and Max Weber were two of the most influential sociologist. Both their views on the rise of capitalism have various similarities and differences. They believe that capitalism is relatively new to the modern world. Their views differ on the rise of capitalism. Regardless of Marx and Weber s differences, both theorists agree that capitalism is a system of highly impersonal relations. Karl Marx was born on May

Karl Marx Karl Marx was the greatest thinker and philosopher of his time. His views on life and the social structure of his time revolutionized the way in which people think. He created an opportunity for the lower class to rise Above the aristocrats and failed due to the creation of the middle class. Despite this failure, he was still a great political leader and set the Basis of Communism in Russia. His life contributed to the way people think Today, and because of him people are more open

Karl Marx was the greatest thinker and philosopher of his time. His views on life and the social structure of his time revolutionized the way in which people think. He created an opportunity for the lower class to rise above the aristocrats and failed due to the creation of the middle class. Despite this failure, he was still a great political leader and set the basis of Communism in Russia. His life contributed to the way people think today, and because of him people are more

Karl Marx was the greatest thinker and philosopher of his time. His views on life and the social structure of his time revolutionized the way in which people think. He created an opportunity for the lower class to rise Above the aristocrats and failed due to the creation of the middle class. Despite this failure, he was still a great political leader and set the Basis of Communism in Russia. His life contributed to the way people think Today, and because of him people are more open

Philosophy of Mind in China Conceptual and Theoretical Matters Historical Developments: The Classical Period Historical Developments: Han Cosmology Historical Developments: The Buddhist Period Historical Developments: The Neo-Confucian Period Bibliography Introduction: Conceptual and Theoretical Matters Classical Chinese theory of mind is similar to Western "folk psychology" in that both mirror their respective background view of language. They differ in ways that fit th

Three Perspectives on When Life Begins Introduction Subject: Where does life begin? That is the age-old question. The decision that legalized the right to an abortion in all 50 states and sparked a political debate that remains charged to this day. Topic: Many questions surround abortion. What really makes someone human? Sub Topics: a) Some suggest life begins when the soul is created. b) Others advocate it is when the child is capable of giving and receiving love. c) Some suggest t

Many of the philosopher's that existed during The Enlightenment influenced many countries, such as the United States of America, France and England, in both past and present history. One French philosopher in particular was Francoise Marie Arouet de Voltaire. He once established the statement, " I do not agree with a word you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it. " I agree with Voltaire's statement, meaning that although you may not agree with someone's be

This story centers on the controversy of abortion in an ambiguous writing style by Ernest Hemingway. First of all, the perspective is not third person omnipresent. The author could not describe the characters thoughts. Most of the information in the story was relayed through the dialogue. The characters would say little things that would give away hints about their relationship. The man was pointed out as an experienced mature male figure ,he discussed an abortion that he wanted the girl to