Philosophy Essays & Term Papers

211 total

The history of woman's oppression extends to long before the advent of capitalism. The fact that child bearing and rearing children required many years of care and nurturing and that the average woman was smaller and weaker than the average male; women developed a mutual arrangement with men. Women would allow a man to take care of her economically in exchange for maintaining a home, preparing meals and raising the offspring of their partnership. As society changed from an agricultural to ind

Descartes and Berkeley on Skepticism About the Senses The philosophers Geroge Berkeley and Renee Descartes both had strong opinions on skepticism about the senses. In this paper, I will explain their philosophies and why they are different and then evaluate them. In his Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes suggests that the senses are like a friend who has lied to you once and whom you therefore cannot trust, at least not until you've proven that he or she is not an evil g

Men and women have tried for years to define Philosophy. One particularly interesting attempt was made by Martin Heidegger in the late 8th Century. He is reported as saying to his good friend and lover, Patrick Hurley, "Philosophy is one large search for the being-upon another and one long journey into the being-inside." In this sense, Philosophy is best understand as a search. But a search for what? For what is it a search? What is the search for? These are hard questions. One thing i

By Albo Cruz SOCRATES Do you know who Socrates is? Socrates is a philosopher who did not only have one perspective to ideas or gods, but had to cross examine them, according to the wishes of his God. He taught his philosophy for free but he sang for his supper. In his era people said he was the wisest man of all but he said he was not wise at all. BACKGROUND Socrates was born in Athens, Greece in 469 B.C.E and was sentenced to death there in 399 B.C.E., at the age of 70. His mother w

Various authors have talked about the transcendentalist philosophy, have written many essays, poems, ECT. Transcendentalism is a philosophy that is practiced by few because of its drastic views. It is a difficult task to succeed; many people have found it difficult to go against society. Transcendentalism is a flawed philosophy and is not effective, but it does have a few good points. It is flawed because it contradicts itself and because of its negative views, although it has some points that a

Nihilism is, literally, the belief in nothing. Originally the term was used to attack accused heretics during the middle ages. Over time, however, the term became applied to a particular branch of philosophy, a radical form of skepticism maintaining the nonexistence of any objective basis for truth. From this standpoint they demanded the complete rejection of all established views and institutions, being constructed on a foundation of subjectivity. Meursault, in Camus' "The Stranger," app

The Right Thing To Do, Is not Always The Right Thing To Do Some say that if one completes his/her studies at the University level without analyzing and understanding Machiavelli's work and theories, then that person has not fully utilized the "college experience." Machiavelli, by some, is said to be one of the greatest theorists and philosophers of all time. Most critics argue, '… that he (Machiavelli) is cynical- that he thinks the worst of people rather than the best of th

Socrates : Man of Knowledge Socrates was the most colorful figure in the history of ancient philosophy. His fame was widespread in his own time. Socrates name soon became a household word although he professed no extraordinary wisdom, constructed no philosophical system, established no school, and founded no sect. The Greek philosopher and logician, Socrates, was an important formative influence on Plato and had a profound effect on ancient philosophy. Dear Journal, From what I can reco

Viktor Frankl's Descartesian Search for Meaning In his autobiography "Man's search for Meaning", Viktor Frankl describes his experiences as a prisoner in the Nazi Concentration Camps during World War II. He depicted situations and places that showed little regard for humanity. People were dehumanized through techniques of slave labor, torture and loss of identity through identification numbers. As a whole, people in the camp were treated without regard to their mental or physical well

Civil disobedience and passive resistance was morally superior to all other types of resistance to unjust laws. The philosophy of Mohandas Gandhi did not incite violence and was the safest and best way to resolve and abolish unjust laws. An example of this can be found in the incident at the Dharassana Salt Works, a British factory. The aspects of his philosophy were all peaceful and did not incite violence. The aspects were civil disobedience, live simply and serve others. The most impor

 P. 1 Fixing Beliefs: A summary of C. S. Peirce In "The Fixation of Belief" Charles Sanders Pierce discusses log

One of the lasting strengths of Buddhism has been its ability to adapt to changing conditions and to many different cultures. Unlike other religions Buddhism does not conflict with modern science. Instead it holds that Buddha applied the experimental approach to questions of ultimate truth. In Thailand and Myanmar, Buddhism remains strong. It reacts to charges of being socially unconcerned, its monks have become involved in various social welfare projects. Although Buddhism in India largely

Plato versus Aristotle Plato and Aristotle, two philosophers in the 4th century, hold polar views on politics and philosophy in general. This fact is very cleverly illustrated by Raphael's "School of Athens" (1510-11; Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican), where Plato is portrayed looking up to the higher forms; and Aristotle is pointing down because he supports the natural sciences. In a discussion of politics, the stand point of each philosopher becomes an essentia

A Brief Comment on the Query: "Is Socrates Guilty As Charged?" History of Political Thought 47.230 B Mini-Essay for Discussion Group #3 In any case of law, when one is considering truth and justice, one must first look at the validity of the court and of the entity of authority itself. In Socrates case, the situation is no different. One may be said to be guilty or not of any said crime, but the true measure of guilt or

Anselm's Ontological Argument and the Philosophers Saint Anselm of Aosta, Bec, and Canterbury, perhaps during a moment of enlightenment or starvation-induced hallucination, succeeded in formulating an argument for God's existence which has been debated for almost a thousand years. It shows no sign of going away soon. It is an argument based solely on reason, distinguishing it from other arguments for the existence of God such as cosmological or teleo

Analysis of Crito The question is raised within the dialogue between Socrates and Crito concerning civil disobedience. Crito has the desire, the means, and many compelling reasons with which he tries to convince the condemned to acquiesce in the plan to avoid his imminent death. Though Crito's temptation is imposing, it is in accord with reason and fidelity that Socrates chooses to fulfill his obligation to the state, even to death. Before addressing Crito's

ristotle: A Comprehensive View on Nature and Society In order to fully understand Aristotle's views on a natural system, it is necessary to first explain some general principles of his philosophy. It is in his work the Categories that Aristotle presents the concept of substance, a concept which will serve as the foundation for much of his philosophical system. Substance, for Aristotle, is not a universal, but rather, it is the particular; substance is not a "such,"

theme Atomism: Democritus and Epicurus Philosophy 116 October 17, 1996 In the Atomists, we see pluralism taken as far as it could possibly go. We see Democritus and Epicurus divide all the world, as well as the universe, into two categories; atoms and empty space. Everything else is merely thought to exist. The atoms are eternal, infinite in size and number and they are moving through the empty space. There is no mot

Imagine you have just found out you are going to die within three months. Recently the questions have been changed from, ?What am I going to do with the rest of my life?? to ?When should I kill myself?? With painful and crippling diseases such as AIDS and cancer, and Alzheimers along with doctors such as Dr. Kavorkian, , some people are choosing death over life. Doctor assisted suicide has been a very controversial subject in the past few years. Some states such as Oregon have

Kant: the Universal Law Formation of the Categorical Imperative Kantian philosophy outlines the Universal Law Formation of the Categorical Imperative as a method for determining morality of actions. This formula is a two part test. First, one creates a maxim and considers whether the maxim could be a universal law for all rational beings. Second, one determines whether rational beings would will it to be a universal law. Once it is clear th

Charles Darwin and Imperialism England went through dramatic changes in the 19th century. English culture, socio-economic structure and politics where largely influenced by the principles of science. Many social expressions occurred due to these changes. Transformations which categorized this time period could be observed in social institutions; for instance: the switch from popular Evangelicalism to atheism, emergence of feminism and

Practical Cognition Theories of Knowledge (Karl Marx) In his early years of writing, Karl Marx's ideas were similar to American Pragmatism, especially his ideas about epistemology. He defines truth in a pragmatic fashion and explains cognition in terms of practical needs of the human being. While some of his ideas were not followed to their logical conclusion, nor made sense, the fundamentals of his epistemology contain valuable ideas which can be viewed as fu

M. Douglas McKinney Philosophy of Religion CONFUCIANISM AND CHRISTIANITY The premise of Confucian teachings are centered around the idea of Jen or the ?virtue of humanity (Ching 68).? To accomplish this divinity, five relationships must be honored: ruler and minister, father and son, husband and wife, elder and younger brother, and friend and friend (Hopfe). These relationships led a push for a revolution of the political system to adopt the methods of Jen.

A philosophical question faces Christians, and in fact all theists, that challenges the belief in G-d. To theists, G-d is an omnipotent, perfect God. He is good. Theists accept this, and embrace it, for how else can they worship G-d and give their lives to Him unless He is good? However, n this world evil is constantly seen all around us. Because G-d is the author of all things in this world, and he is good, theists must then ask themselves what evil is and where it came from.

Hume In explaining Hume's critique of the belief in miracles, we must first understand the definition of a miracle. The Webster Dictionary defines a miracle as: a supernatural event regarded as to define action, one of the acts worked by Christ which revealed his divinity an extremely remarkable achievement or event, an unexpected piece of luck. Therefore, a miracle is based on one's perception of past experiences,

A Study of Depression and Relationships A primary concern for Psychology research is depression. Depression affects a great deal of our population and many aspects of an individual's mental health and well-being. In my research of books, articles, and Internet pages on depression, I chose to base my paper mainly on a 1994 article of a study of depression, entitled Depression, Working Models of Others, and Relationship Functioning, by Katherine B. Carnelley, Paula R. Pie

Discussion of the Feasibility of Miracles and the Grounds for Christianity existing without Miracles. Kurt Erler Philosophical Classics 11/11/96 In the following Discussion, I will point out the facts and ideas that disagree with Hume's ideas. The ideas are the ones on miracles in An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding

Since the dawn of mankind, man has been searching for the answer to just one question: Why do we dream? I believe strongly that the reason is not clear-cut and as easy to answer as it might seem. I think that dreams range in meaning and importance. When someone has a dream, there are many possible types of dreams they could have. First of these possibilities is for a dream that involves absolutely no meaning whatsoever.

Enlightenment -- -The Light Bulb of the 1700's Throughout history many people have changed society with their ideas and actions. Two philosophers whose ideas and actions changed society are Voltaire and John Lock. Martin Luther and Galileo also changed society. John Lock and Voltaire both fought for basic human rights. Voltaire fought for basic religious freedom. He claimed that if god created the Catholic religion and god loves all people, then why does the C

Euthanasia Euthanasia - is it killing or letting die? In the last thirty years, this has been a highly controversial topic, the worldly morals versus the Christian. Although there are certain instances where it is justifiably considered to be letting die, it is essentially killing. § Euthanasia comes from a Greek word, meaning "easy death," and is now often associated with the infamous Dr. Kevorkian. There are three types of euthanasia - what doctors con

Camus's The Stranger is a grim profession that choice and individual freedom are integral components of human nature, and the commitment and responsibility that accompany these elements are ultimately the deciding factors of the morality of one's existence. Meursault is placed in an indifferent world, a world that embraces absurdity and persecutes reason; such is the nature of existentialist belief, that rationalization and logic are ultimately the essence of

The precise definition of personality has been a point of discussion amongst many different theorists within many different disciplines since the beginning of civilisation. Personality can be defined as "the distinctive and characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behaviour that define an individual's personal style and influence his or her interactions with the environment" (Atkinson, Atkinson, Smith & Bem, 1993: 525). It can be proposed that personality

Alice Furnari 24 /2/97 Freedom and Reason in Kant Morality, Kant says, cannot be regarded as a set of rules which prescribe the means necessary to the achievement of a given end; its rules must be obeyed without consideration of the consequences that will follow from doing so or not. A principle that presupposes a desired object as the determinant of the will cannot give rise to a moral law; that is, the morality of an act of will cannot be determined by the matt

We ought then regard the present state of the universe as the effect of its previous state and the cause of the one which is to follow. An intelligence knowing at a given instant of time all the forces operating in nature, as well as the position at that instant of all things of which the universe consists, would be able to comprehend the motions of the largest bodies in the universe and those of the smallest atoms in a single formula - provided that it was su

Kevin Clark Philosophy p.2 Humanism The word "humanism" has a number of meanings, and because there are so many different meanings it can be quite confusing if you don't know what kind of humanism someone is talking about. Literary Humanism is a devotion to the humanities or literary culture. Renaissance Humanism is the spirit of learning that developed at the end of the middle ages with the revival of classical letters and a rene

ISU Essay : Ayn Rand-The Fountainhead Imagine power as a form of free flowing energy, a source found within every one and for each individual. Assume that to gain power, one has to tap this resevoir of immense proportions and relish upon the rich harvest to their hearts desires. Consequently, when there is such a dealing of concentrated materials, nature takes charge and similarly to other physical abstracts, rendering this package lethal, with the potential for unt

James Rachels' Death and Dying James Rachels is one of the most controversial philosophers talked about in today's society. One of his most talked about topics is whether a person has a right to die or not. Not much is known about Rachels expect for the many articles and books he has written. In the controversy of letting a person die or killing him, he does not try to explain which method is good and which method is bad. He however tries to explain why they both ar

Perhaps one of, if not the, most historically influential political thinkers of the western world was John Locke. John Locke, the man who initiated what is now known as British Empiricism, is also considered highly influential in establishing grounds, theoretically at least, for the constitution of the United States of America. The basis for understanding Locke is that he sees all people as having natural God given rights. As God's creations, this denotes a certain equality, at

Lamarck's Influence on the Development of Darwin's Theory of Evolution Serebryany, Rostislav Marc Weinstein Lamarck's Influence on The Development of Darwin's Theory of Evolution There have been many ideas on the theory of evolution. Some simply take our existence for granted, others prefer to explain all evolution in terms of the bible and the presence of a God. However, there are those who have researc

Descartes overall objective in the Meditations is to question knowledge. To explore such metaphysical issues as the existence of God and the separation of mind and body, it was important for him to distinguish what we can know as truth. He believed that reason as opposed to experience was the source for discovering what is of absolute certainty. In my explication, I will examine meditation two in order to discover why knowledge was so important to Descartes. Meditation

John Locke believes that man ought to have more freedom in political society than John Stuart Mill does. John Locke's The Second Treatise of Government and John Stuart Mill's On Liberty are influential and potent literary works which while outlining the conceptual framework of each thinkers ideal state present two divergent visions of the very nature of man and his freedom. John Locke and John Stuart Mill have different views regarding how much freedom man ought to have in poli

Morality; The Pre-existing and Universal Code Morality: A doctrine or system of moral conduct; particular moral principles or rule of conduct. To say that modern morality consists in accepting the standard of one's age is to suggest that human morality changes with the passing of time. This statement is just unacceptable. Morality is not something of a fad. It should not go through trends like clothes or popular music, morality is the fou

Chris Carlson English 1-53 Panopticon: The Ideal Social Order "The Panopticon is a marvelous machine which, whatever use one may wish to put it to, produces homogenous effects of power." Panopticism is a style of controlling the individual and making him conform to the system. That system could refer to the police or the world as a whole. There is never a definite top position, therefore, everyone feels as if they are being monitored by someone else. It is

Tim V Kolton Personal Identity: Philosophical Views Alan Watts once said, "Trying to define yourself is like trying to bite your own teeth." The task of personal identity is to define a quality of a human which makes him or her a unique self. The person whose identity is in question must realize themselves, and other people must identify this person. In other words, what makes John unique from Bob? One must consider both internal (mind) and external (body) perspec

Socrates has thoroughly justified his own decision to obey the opinions of the majority and serve out the sentence that his own city has deemed appropriate for his crimes. At the beginning of this piece, Socrates has presented a period of questions and answers through dialogue with Crito. Throughout the dialogue Socrates is explaining his reasoning for not running from the government. Crito does not understand the madness of Socrates, Crito will do whatever it tak

Based on Freud concepts of pleasure and aggression, discuses Hay Ibn Yaqzan and The Island of Animals It is said to be that seeking pleasure and aggression are a part of our human Instinct. We seek pleasure to shorten the time of our unhappiness. We live in a constant struggle to be always happy, and we use all the ways that take us to happiness. Aggression, on the otherhand, is a part of our human nature, which can be hidden deep down in

Ethics in Business - 2081 (Sec. 1) PRESUPPOSITIONS OF THE GAME THEORY Soloman believes that as the game theory gets more sophisticated, we tend to lose sight of the problem rather than solve it. He sees the problem as how to get people to think about business and about themselves in an Aristotelian rather than a neo-Hobbesian (or even a Rawlsian) way, which the game theoretical models simply presuppose. Soloman discusses seven presuppositions in the first sect

Psychological Egoism: Every person is oriented towards his (or her) own welfare, and the object of every one of his voluntary actions is some good to himself. Janan Savage Ethics Psychological egoism is a reflex that every person has to orient themselves toward their own welfare. Through this, it follows that every one of his (or her) voluntary actions is some good to himself. If someone gives away the last piece of bread to someone else, it is bec

Philosophy : Workfare "Society's Restraint to Social Reform" Of the many chatted words in the social reform vocabulary of Canadians today, the term workfare seems to stimulate much debate and emotion. Along with the notions of self-sufficiency, employability enhancement, and work disincentives, it is the concept of workfare that causes the most tension between it's government and business supporters and it's anti-poverty and

The Morality of Abortion On the question of abortion being moral, the answer is clearly that terminating a fetus' life under certain circumstances is not only moral, but it is also our responsibility to terminate it if the quality of life is in question for the fetus. A second major reason is that to declare abortion immoral would mean that we would have to consider the factor of how the conception came about. This cannot and should not be done. Quality is a