History: European Essays & Term Papers

231 total

The scientific revolution, like most revolutions in man's way of looking at the world was rooted in the past. The scientific revolution manly took place in the seventeenth century, and it brought changes in humanity's view of itself, nature, and God. Newton had many ancestors. Greek philosophers were the first to develop science, and then they passed their scientific concepts on to their disciples, the Romans. Once scientific methods were known, not even the Middle Age's preference for relig

The Celts Georg Ramsauer lived in a small village called Hallstatt, in Austria. This village was located near a lake named Salzkammergut, which means "the place of good salt," also near the region's capitol, Salzburg, "the salt town." The salt from these mountains was used to preserve the food in most of Old Europe. Ramsauer was the director of the salt mines. He'd heard tales of his worker's ancestors, and was fascinated by them. Hoping to find some remnant of these earlier people, he b

It is commonly believed that all life evolved from simple single celled organisms. From our single celled ancestors man has evolved to become the most advanced life form on the planet thanks in part to too the vast cognitive abilities of the brain. The human brain has allowed man to separate itself from the rest of the Earthly organisms through speech and manual dexterity. These two important distinctions have led to a rich collection of cultural artistry through paintings, sculpture, music and

Napoleon Bonaparte is considered by some a reformer and by others a monster, although all must agree that the emperor of France, and for sixteen years most of Europe, one of the greatest military and political geniuses of all time. Napoleon took advantage of every opportunity time after time. In November 1799, Napoleon joined with Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes and other plotters in designing a coup d'etat to overthrow the Directory of France. Quickly revising the Constitution, the plotters set up a

Charles De Montesquieu (1689-1755) Montesquieu was baptized Charles Louis de la Brede, taking his name from the estate given as his mothers dowry when she married Jacques de Secondat. He was born in La Brede, about ten miles from Bordeaux. When he was an infant he was placed under the care of a poor man's wife so he could see that the poor were his brothers. In 1700 he was sent to the college of the Oratorians at Juilly, near Meaux, where he studied classical letters, history, and the scienc

For 28 years, 15 feet of concrete, metal pipes, barbed wire, mines, and trenches spreading 110 miles divided a nation. Those living in the nation named the barrier Schandmauer, the Wall of Shame. We know it better as the Berlin Wall. SCHANDMAUER - Wall of Shame In addition to the many destructive factors which led to the wall's construction, including WWII, the Soviet Blockade, the Kennedy/Khruschev conflict, and opposing cold war views, the tragedy of the Berlin Wall's constr

Locke and Rousseau were two philosophers of the Enlightenment. Both wrote extensively and developed theories of the human nature and how men governed themselves. Both philosophers agree that before civilized man began to govern himself, man existed in a state of nature. That is, humans lacked society or structure. Rousseau argues that this was and still is the perfect state for man, where he is free, autonomous and virtuous. Government and civil society is developed only to protect property,

The great escape that Donald Woods pulled off was a great act of heroism. Woods risked his own and more importantly, his family's lives to escape South Africa and publish a book. His desire to publish this book and spread the word overcomes his desire for his family's safety. If I were in Wood's position, I would do exactly what Woods had done. What would take me over the edge to go after what Woods wanted to do would be the same as what Woods wanted. He wanted the entire world to know abo

The Age of Reason was a period in time that took place from the Peace of Utrecht (1713), to the French Revolution of 1789. It was a period when reason basically replaced religion as the guiding principle in art, thought, and the governance of men. Unquestioned acceptance of the old order of society and the old ways of statecraft yielded to a new spirit of critical inquiry which demanded some rational justification for the existing social system. People thought that the general application of

The Irish Republican Army Introduction The troubles currently plaguing the Island known as Ireland are by no means new. They lay deeply rooted in it's long and complicated history. Currently, the conflict is seen as the republicans and their belief that Ireland should be united and independant clashing with the people who live in what is known as Northern Ireland who are loyal to British rule. This is most definatly not the only issue, as many other factors such as religio

Everything in history has its cause, its reason for happening and nothing goes unnoticed. According to the laws of probability, there are infinite outcomes to every minor event in our lives, and each of those possible outcomes will have tremendous impact on the future. Of course, these laws are taken for granted by most of us, but in looking at them we could better understand the present with respect to our past. In this case the Scientific Revolution was the beginning of the Age of Enlighten

Throughout history the struggle for power and peace in Europe has been the foundation upon which many great events have occurred. Europe's past, then, could be characterized as a ruthless struggle between nations, contending for dominance not only in Europe but globally. Nowhere is this point exemplified more ideally than in the conflict between Austria-Hungary and Serbia, which not only drew in other European powers but ultimately the world. Although it was not recognized at the time, th

The Roots of War Turn on the news or pick up a newspaper and no doubtedly you will find a reference to Bosnia. You can read the happenings of the day and then ponder what is going on. From these events one can draw many conclusions and still be left with a sense of confusion. The problem with the analysis of the events is that the average individual has little if any reference to the history of the region. A true anaylisis of the events must start with the knowledge of not only the current

The Positive Effects of the Bubonic Plague In the summer of 1665 in the hot arid east, a devastating plague wiped out a multitude of people. Many whole families were wiped out, and civilizations took many years to begin to recover. To despite the many detrimental effects of the Bubonic Plague, there were positive results from this atrocity. People suffering from the Black Plague had a short time to live. In the pneumonic form, only three days (Matthews 234). People could get a white coating on

There are numerous things that could be said about Adolf Hitler. Many opinions and arguments have been made in favor and opposition for this man who is considered both the greatest murderer of all times and probably the most powerful person ever to exist. He is also probably one of the most common names in history. Either way I will show you Hitler, the man, the terror, the legend, you decided. Many conservatives accuse Hitler of being a leftist, on the grounds that thi

Jules Verne That movie, 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, was based on a book. It was written in the 1800's - years before the first sub was invented. The man who thought this story up was Jules Verne. Jules Verne was an amazing writer who predicted the science future of the world. Some of the inventions he imagined were created later in his lifetime, but some are still to be invented. He was popular with all kinds of readers: rich, poor, young, old, scientists, artists and rulers. He wrote ov

Shaun Babakhanians History Essay Like the Athenians and Spartans of ancient Greece, the Inca and the Aztec bear resemblance to the two other ancient cultures. The Athenians and Incas were both more interested in developing their Arts as well as their military, but both the Spartans and the Aztecs were highly interested more so in warfare than religion. Although the Aztec and Inca never had to face each other, it is interesting to compare them because of their dominant positions of ext

The Age of Napolean During the period of time when there was continuing war with Great Britain, Austria, and Sardinia, France needed a new military leader. These wars opened up opportunity for a reflexive unknown general named Napoleon Bonaparte. At the age of 26 this general suppressed the uprising in Paris that attempted to prevent the establishment of the directory. The people of France chose Napoleon because they needed stability. Napoleon was born in 11769 on the Fr

1 Great leaders throughout history have inspired, enlightened, and validated the wildest dreams of ruling the world. Few people in the world have the internal strength, influence, and intelligence to lead the masses into a group fighting for a divine cause. We fear what is powerful and unknown, we love what is ours and great. True patriots have the desired to make their countries better and stronger. Adolf Hitler became a powerful leader of the German Third Reich by his influence over

Alfred, the King of the West Saxons, was a truly influential man who was given the title "Great" by his people. He was, and still is today, the only English king to have been given this title1 and for good reason. Alfred was an accomplished military leader and leader in the development of education among his people and for this he is credited with helping to make modern English speaking society what it is today. This essay will examine his military feats, his planned defence o

The Story of Medugorje What is said to be one of the world's most holiest places, Medugorje has not only came through to keeping this title but will always be remembered for what had happened and what is still to come in the up coming future. Medugorje, a city is situated in the southern part of Herzegovina . Up until 1981, Medugorje was an unknown village of the Citluk County district of West Herzegovina. It belongs to the area known throughout history as "Brotnjo". It was not

Queen Elizabeth 1 Queen Elizabeth I reigned from 1558 to 1602. She was born on September 7, 1533 in Greenwich Palace, London. At the age of 25, Elizabeth became Queen. In a matter of months she had won the hearts of the people and she returned that love. Her great skills made people forget the fact that she was a woman. They saw her as a strong and effective leader who brought great changes for the better of all her people. Men were usually thought of as the smart, intelligent sex but Queen

The Crossbow and Longbow: Revolutionary Forms of Medieval Warfare The crossbow, a medieval missile weapon used in combat and recreation, revolutionized warfare in the 11th Century. The mechanical device was introduced to the English by the Norman Invaders in 1066 and became widely used among the armies of numerous countries. The crossbows were originally constructed of horn and pliable wood but were eventually made of iron which added great power to its firing. The crossbow became a

Around 1293 the chieftain of a nomadic Turkish tribe named Osman, founded an empire that would endure almost six hundred years. As this empire grew by conquering lands of the Byzantine Empire and beyond, it came to include, at its height, all of Asia Minor, Albania, Greece, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Romania, Egypt, Crete, Cyprus, Palestine, and North Africa through Algeria; parts of Hungry, Austria, Russia, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Oman, U.A.E., and Syria. The elite tactics and fearsome fighting of the

Click Here For Research Papers Online! subject = European History title = Caesar and Naopoleon papers = Napoleon Bonaparte's success as a military leader and conqueror can also be seen in another great leader, Julius Caesar. Both Napoleon and Caesar achieved great glory by bringing their countries out of turmoil. It was Caesar, that Napoleon modeled himself after, he wanted to be as great, if not greater than Caesar. Looking to the past, Napoleon knew what steps to take in order to a

Click Here For Research Papers Online! European History Charles et Secondat, Baron de la Brede et de Montesquieu Charles de Secondat, Baron de la Brede et de Montesquieu was born in 1689 to a French noble family. "His family tree could be traced 350 years, which in his view made its name neither good nor bad." (The Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, p. 68) Montesquieu's views started to be shaped at a very early age. A beggar was chosen to be his godfather to remind him of his obligation

Click Here For Research Papers Online! History of popular culture 'Functions of festivals in Early Modern Europe...' University level Essay History of Popular Culture 'What were the functions of popular festivals, etc. in Early Modern Europe? And why did the authorities, civil and ecclesiastical seek to control or suppress them?' In Early Modern Europe festivals were the setting for heroes and their stories, to be celebrated by the populace. They posed a change from their

Click Here For Research Papers Online! subject = Hist 2003: European History 1914 - present title = The Fascist Tide papers = European History: 1914 - present The Fascist Tide: The Rise of a Major Force in Inter-War Europe. The Fascist Tide Following the catastrophe of WWI the fascist movement rose to prominence upon a wave of discontent to become a major force in interwar Europe. The years from 1919-1945 were a fascist renaissance for Europe. A wave of rabid right-wing sentiment fo

Click Here For Research Papers Online! subject = European History title = Galileo Galilei Galileo Galilei Galileo Galilei was born at Pisa on the 18th of February in 1564. His father, Vincenzo Galilei, belonged to a noble family and had gained some distinction as a musician and a mathematician. At an early age, Galileo manifested his ability to learn both mathematical and mechanical types of things, but his parents, wishing to turn him aside from studies which promised no substantia

Click Here For Research Papers Online! subject = History title = Henry VIII papers = On June 28, 1941 Henry the VIII of England was born. This young man will form his own church. He will succeed to the throne in 1509. He will also marry six women! Something good will happen when he is king, he will unite England and Wales and will also do some bad things like executing people who would not follow his rules. In 1539, the Act of Supremacy declared Henry to be the head of

Click Here For Research Papers Online! title = The Rise and Fall of Hitler Reich The Rise and Fall of Hitlers Reich Feeling that all was lost, Hitler shot himself on April 30, 1945. By orders formally given by him before his death, SS officers immersed Hitler's body in gasoline and burned it in the garden of the Chancellery. Soon after the suicide of Hitler, the Germ On Easter Sunday April 20, 1889, at an inn called the Gasth of Zum Pommer, the wife of an Austrian Customs official gave

Hitler Click Here For Research Papers Online! subject = European History title = Hitler papers = 1. THE BEGINNING At half past six on the evening of April 20th, 1889 a child was born in the small town of Branau, Austria. The name of the child was Adolf Hitler. He was the son a Customs official Alois Hitler, and his third wife Klara. As a young boy Adolf attendate time he tried to get admission and in the next year, 1907 he tried again and was very sure of success.

Click Here For Research Papers Online! subject = history:Holocaust title = The use of propaganda in the Nazi Regime and in their Totalitarian Control papers = The Role of Propaganda in the Nazi Takeover and in Their Totalitarian Control When one thinks of the term "propaganda", what comes to mind? Would it bring a positive response? Would it bring a negative response? When one thinks of "propaganda" in association with the Holocaust, what comes to mind? A positive response or a negati

Click Here For Research Papers Online! name = Justin Katz email = TRipLeZeR0@juno.com publish = yes subject = Europe History title = Industrial Revolutions effects on Europe papers = The Industrial Revolution had an overall positive effect on Europe. This revolution was a time of change in which machines helped the working class. Many positive discoveries and inventions helped agriculture. Textiles could be produced more s In the late 1700's England experienced the Industrial Revolution

Click Here For Research Papers Online! History, Europe, France Louis XIV, The Sun King Louis XIV was only four years old when he succeeded his father to the French throne. Often uncared for, he nearly drowned because no one was watching him as he played near a pond. This began to shape in his young mind an early fear of God. Louis' character was also shaped by the French Civil War. In this, the Paris Parlement rose against the crown. For five years, Louis would suffer fear, cold

Click Here For Research Papers Online! Marco Polo S.S. 9R Period 2 May 6, 1996 Marco Polo Marco Polo is one of the most well-known heroic travelers and traders around the world. In my paper I will discuss with you Marco Polo's life, his travels, and his visit to China to see the great Khan. Marco Polo was born in c.1254 in Venice. He was a Venetian explorer and merchant whose account of his travels in Asia was the primary source for the European image of the Far East until the late 1

Click Here For Research Papers Online! name = Jung Soo Kim email = dennis138@Juno.com publish = yes subject = History title = Reasons on why Napoleon had lost the Campaign of 1812 papers = Please put your paper here. Napoleon's Reasons for Defeat The Campaign of 1812 should have been a another crusade for Napoleon, but he now faced 2 new policies that he had never faced before, the severe Russian winter and the notorious scorched-earth policy. On June 23, 1812 Napoleon's Grande Arm

Click Here For Research Papers Online! NAZISM The National Socialist German Workers' Party almost died one morning in 1919. It numbered only a few dozen grumblers' it had no organization and no political ideas. But many among the middle class admired the Nazis' muscular opposition to the Social Democrats. And the Nazis themes of patriotism and militarism drew highly emotional responses from people who could not forget Germany's prewar imperial grandeur. In the national elections of Sep

When analyzing how Poland's, or any other country's, problems of today are linked to the past, scholars must take a look at the country's background. This paper aims to expose and explore Poland for what it is today using the backdrop of its past. The Poland is a central European country bordered by the former Czechoslovakia, Germany, and several former Soviet Republics (Poland World Book 1096). Poland comes from the Slavic tribe Polane that once lived there more than a thousand years ago.

Click Here For Research Papers Online! name = Lukasz Cholodecki email = lcholode@athena.valpo.edu publish = yes subject = Modern European History 315 title = Solidarity: The Movement and It's Causes papers = Solidarity: The Movement and It's Causes History 315/515 Prof. Startt Essay #2 The Solidarity movement in Poland was one of the most dramatic developments in Eastern Europe during t

Rommel was born November 15th 1891, christened Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel. His father was a local schoolmaster. He was the second son; the first was Manfred, who died in infancy. Rommel started school as the dreamy type but in adolescence greatly improved. His father died in 1913. He had 2 brothers and a sister, and was head of the household at 22 resulting from his father's death. He was born in Heidenheim. He joined the army because his father had briefly served in it as a lieutenant.

Jeremy Foust 10/04/98 Thucydides, Not in the 18th Century Thucydides wrote the History of the Peloponnesian War believing that it was a good picture of "the past and which (humane nature being what it is) will, at some time or other and in much the same ways, be repeated in the future."(Thucydides 48) In this paper a comparison between the time of Thucydides and the classical balance of power in 19th century Europe will be examined. It will attempt to address the possibilities of oncom

Columbus: Sailing on the High Seas of Personal Good Fortune Some amateur historians might have you believe that October 12, 1492 was the single most important day in the past millennia. On that day, Columbus 'discovered' the so-called New World. If you merrily skip along through the story, every 'important' part sounds glorifying; Columbus discovers a land full of gold, many people move to this 'New World,' native lands are conquered, and finally a great capitalistic society is formed. Ba

Robert Parmar [I got an A on this essay] In 16th and 17th century Europe, France, England, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Netherlands all underwent religious and political upheaval. One consequence of this unrest was the igniting of the Thirty Years War, which spanned much of Central Europe. Along the way, religious settlements were declared to cease religious conflict: the Edict of Nantes, the Elizabethan Settlement, the Peace of Augsburg, and the Peace of Westphalia. The question is

1001 words The Crusades Though the causes of the crusades can easily be distinguished the one cause can not be effectively since there is always something that will contradict it. The crusades took place because of the rivalry as well as the clash of cultures between the Catholic Church and the Muslims, they both wanted power, the crusaders wanted more land, and more wealth and both parties wanted to be closer to the Armageddon. It can easily be determined that there was a rival

In the Middle Ages, life for the peasant was very restricted and unfavorable. In history class, many topics were covered reflecting on their life and the struggle they went through to make it all worthwhile. Life for peasants could have been quite dreadful. Yet, living had improved as Europe was closing the chapter on the Middle ages, and the Renaissance was slowly coming into view. There were some major problems with common medieval living. The peasants made a hard living on a manor (

The Effects of The Black Death on the Economic and Social Life of Europe The Black Death is the name later given to the epidemic of plague that ravaged Europe between 1347 and 1351. The disaster affected all aspects of life. Depopulation and shortage of labor hastened changes already inherent in the rural economy; the substitution of wages for labor services was accelerated, and social stratification became less rigid. Psychological morbidity affected the arts; in religion, the lack of educat

Two dominant features of Islamic art and architecture, the importance of calligraphic ornamentation and the form of the mosque, are intimately related to the Islamic faith and were developed in the early days of the religion. The part about Islamic art and architecture that stands out the most is it's uniform style, its symmetrical and stands out more boldly than other buildings and art work. The architecture is art in itself. The way that it is constructed is artistic. The paint is glos

_______________ AP European History Period 4 The Protestant Reformation The Protestant Reformation changed the course of European history very strongly, and rapidly. This paper will talk about what exactly the reformation did to Europe, in terms of social, political, and philosophical impacts. Before the reformation occurred, the general public was made up of an overall praying people. They accepted all aspects of the church, whether or not they personally believed in the idea or n

The French Revolution Introduction The French Revolution, which occurred from 1789 to 1799 had a lasting impact on France, and has helped it become what it is today. Before the French revolution, France had a monarchial state, with a very rigid social hierarchy. Wars started and fought by King Louis XIV, and XV cost the country massive amounts of capital. When King Louis took the throne at age 19, the advocates of the country were becoming increasingly vocal. Trouble was all aroun