History: Ancient Essays & Term Papers

119 total

The Royal Crypts of Copan In his article The Royal Crypts of Copan, George Stuart explores the ruins of the Mayan culture. Along with Kenneth Garrett, Christopher Klein, and an archeological team from the University of Pennsylvania Museum, this Chairman of the Committee for Research and Exploration at National Geographic leads his readers through a stunning tour of the ancient crypts in Honduras. His article can be found in the December 1997 issue of National Geographic (Volume 192, No. 6),

Before the arrival of European explorers in the late 18th and early 19th century, Arctic Alaska, stretching from Norton Sound to the Canadian border, was the location of many Inupiaq-speaking groups. Some of these people stayed close to their homes while others were more mobile. All, however, tended to have marriages within rather than between groups. Clothing styles, personal adornment, and sub-language differences also served to separate the members of one group from another. Though each spoke

HECTOR MERCEDES HISTORY 101-003 PROFFESOR RICHARD GREEN COSTANTINE/BYZANTINE CULTURE MAY 11, 2000 The Byzantine Empire was the eastern part of the Roman Empire, which survived the destruction of the western empire. Constantinople, which is now Istanbul, Turkey, was the capital city. Constantinople became the capital of the Roman Empire in the year 330 A.D. after Constantine the Great founded the city and re-named it after himself. Little by little Constantinople became the true

The author Michael Crawford wrote the book The Roman Republic to offer an interpretation about the Roman Empire. This was done to educate the reader about how Rome gained its greatness and became the military and cultural center of the world at that time. He wanted to inform the readers about how the Roman Empire grew from one city tribe, to dominate the Italian peninsula, and finally to conquer the Mediterranean coast. This conquest led to what was then the great Greek and Egyptian Empires

According to his guide, Virgil (in the Aeneid)Ulysses and the Greek army stormed Troy and destroyed everything. A few survivors, led by Aeneus, sailed away and finally landed in Italy (that was their fate). And with that fate they took over Italy, founded the Roman Empire which in turn becames into the states of Italy. Dante and Virgil were upset at the attack on Troy and considered the warfare brutal, so placing Ulysses in Hell in an eternal fire is a fitting punish

The fall of the Roman Empire ybarra The Roman Empire was one of the greatest empires known to mankind. Unfortunately it had a decline due to invaders, economic problems, and the constant fighting for the throne. The Roman army along the frontiers managed to protect the Romans for years. Beginning in 161 A.D, some enemies broke across the frontiers to invade the Roman Empire. This became a serious problem for the Romans. Along the empires borders lived tribes of Germanic people

The Roman Empire was the period of time after the Roman Republic and before the Byzantine Empire from 29 B.C. to A.D. 476. It was the highest point of Roman civilization, greater than any prior empires and towers over even the empires after it; it triumphed over the world . The Roman Republic was what built up the foundation for the Roman Empire. During the Republic, a small group of people started from scratch and developed their own systems, which later develops into the Roman Empire.

Italy and Greece Report Italy is located in southern Europe. Rome was once capital of the Roman Empire, but today is the capital of Italy. Nearly all Italians are Roman Catholics, although many do not attend church regularly. There are about 100,000 Protestants. Italy also has a very small Jewish community. Roman Catholicism was made the official religion of Italy in 1929. Italian is the language the majority of the people speak in Italy. The rich art and culture of Italy reflect Italy

The seemingly unstoppable Roman Empire was bound to fall after the many aspects that made Rome such a dominant empire started to fade away. Rome was the center of the world and the thought that such a worldwide power could decline was unheard of. It was not built in a day; therefore it couldn’t be destroyed in one day. The marvelous city declined for many reasons yet there are only a few major reasons that led to its diminish. Political, economic, religious, and outside forces were

Aeneas as a Roman Hero In Virgil’s poem, The Aeneid, the ideal Roman hero is depicted in the form of Aeneas. Not only does Aeneas represent the Roman hero, but he also represents what every Roman citizen is called to be. Each Roman citizen must posses two major virtues, he must remain pious, and he must remain loyal to the Roman race. In the poem, Aeneas encompasses both of these virtues, and must deal with both the rewards and costs of them. In the poem, Virgil says that all Ro

Summary: Publius Virgilius Maro s the Aeneid is a tale of arms and a man. Fated to be exile, he was the first to sail from the land of Troy and reach Italy and it s Lavinian shore. Virgil s Aeneid is about the Trojan hero Aeneas and his travelings to eventually start the Roman Empire. The Aeneid was a very subjective poem; the praise of Augustus Caesar and the Roman Empire clearly echoes Virgil s own beliefs. Rome had just finished a bloody civil war a few decades before this writing and neede

Why exactly did the western Roman Empire fall? The decline of the empire began when Marcus Aurelius became the ruler in192 A.D. and continued for 200 years following that. Of the numerous reasons that caused the fall of the empire, the most influential dealt with Rome’s political, military, and economic decay. The deterioration of politics was the greatest set back of the empire. After Augustus died, Rome had a problem with secession. Roman government had no laws for choosing a n

The three cultures that developed to form the basis for Western thought were the Hebrews, the Greeks, and the Romans. The Hebrews were the first culture to develop and spent their early years as slaves. They rebuilt the temple, and created the first five books of the Old Testament. After a final revolt, they became stateless and then became the Roman Empire. The Hebrews left behind no paintings, sculptures, and not much literature; however they did leave behind some religious literatu

Constantinople: The Gateway City Constantinople was built in 330 CE, by the first Christian emperor, Constantine. Constantinople ruled much of the deserted Roman Empire many years after Constantine s death. Constantinople can be described as a Gateway City by its geographic features, the cultural influences, and the historical influences upon the rest of the world. Constantinople was positioned upon a major seaport called Byzantium. The positioning of Constantinople was at a location bet

The Byzantium Civilization started cause of overcrowding in the eight century B.C. that led Greek city-states to send out colonies throughout the Mediterranean basin. In the year of 667 B.C.; Byzas, from the Greek city of Megra, founded Byzantium Civilization at the mouth of the Black Sea. Alexander the Great dominated Byzantium as he built an empire around it stretching from Greece to India. Byzantium was the Christianized eastern part of the Roman Empire. Constantine the Great was a vital f

THE HAPSBURG S DEMISE On October 24, 1648 in Munster a treaty was signed that ended one of the most bloody wars in European history. This war, a war of religion, involved most of Western Europe, especially the Holy Roman Empire. The Thirty Years War marked the decline socially, politically, and economically of the Hapsburgs and the rise of France as the chief power in Europe. As a result of the Thirty Years War, the Hapsburgs lost their standing as the wealthiest dynasty in Europe.

Fences In the play, Fences , by August Wilson, the character Troy exemplifies many traits, specifically, how troy is giving, honest, and responsible. First is how Troy is giving throughout the play. Even though Troy has almost no money from his job with having to pay bills he still loans out money to Lyons any way, Yeah, I got it. You know why I got it? Cause I don t throw my money away out there in the streets. You living the fast life wanna be a musician running around in them clubs

Constantine Constantine the Great is considered by many one of the best emperors of Roman history. Constantine was the first emperor to convert to Cristianityand also founded the great city of Constantinople which remained the capital of the eastern Romans empire until 1453. Constantine the Great was born Flavius Valerius Constantinus at Nis, in what is now Serbia, son of the commander Constantius Chlorus and Helena, a camp follower. Constantius became co-emperor in 305. Constantine, who ha

The Romans, unlike the Greeks were not gifted in abstract thought. They constructed no original system of philosophy, invented no major literary forms, and made no scientific discoveries. Yet, they excelled in the art of government and empire building, they created a workable world-state and developed skills in administration, law, and practical affairs. In the Punic Wars, the Roman republic defeated the Carthaginians in North Africa and Rome inherited the Pergamene Kingdom from the las

As he runs from his home in the American South, Troy Maxson, the son of a black sharecropper, is borne north by the great migration of his people searching for the promised land. Unskilled and unwanted, he searches the streets of distant cities until the day he kills a man to stay alive. He learns how to play baseball in jail, rises to prominence in the Negro leagues, but is barred from playing in the major leagues because of the color of his skin. He was great before the game w

Rome was not built in a day, nor did it fall in a day. Many factors contributed to the fall of the Roman Empire. The most important factors were that the cities consumed without producing and that disease ravaged the Roman world. The Roman cities never became commercial cities like the cities of the Greek Empire. After the Punic Wars, the plebian farmers flocked to the cities looking for food. Their farms had been demolished and there was no food left for them and their families to ea

The fall of the Roman Empire #4 “The Roman Empire collapsed of its own corruption and internal dissatisfaction- external enemies were a minimal factor.” Roman Empire stood in Great power for many decades, undefeated, strong and dominant. It was a common belief that the empire would last eternally. During the rule of Augustus, it was a time of the cultural development, piece and economic stability. It was the “Golden age” as historians call it. Yet nothing lasts forever. Afte

During the Greek-Roman period there was a time span that began with the reign of Augustus Caesar to the death of Marcus Aurelius known as the Pax Romana. This time span which covered more than 200 years brought many changes to the Roman Empire. It was a time for unity, peace, and national stability for the Roman's. During the Pax Romana culture as a whole became more sophisticated. Romans not only were fascinated, but eager to figure out the world they were a part of. The

Fences In the play Fences by August Wilson, Troy is shown as a man who has hurt the people who are closest to him without even realizing it. He has acted insensitive and uncaring to his wife, Rose, his brother, Gabriel and his son, Cory. At the beginning of the story, Troy feels he has done right by them. He feels this through out the story. He doesn t realize how much he has hurt them. Troy is the son of an abusive father. His father was hardly around to raise him. When he was around, he ma

Fences In the play Fences by August Wilson, Troy is shown as a man who has hurt the people who are closest to him without even realizing it. He has acted insensitive and uncaring to his wife, Rose, his brother, Gabriel and his son, Cory. At the beginning of the story, Troy feels he has done right by them. He feels this through out the story. He doesn’t realize how much he has hurt them. Troy is the son of an abusive father. His father was hardly around to raise him. When he was arou

David Kerkes3/19, Per.6Did the Trojan War really exist? Many have speculated about the Trojan War. It s been written about in books like the Iliad and The Odyssey. A person could read in a book about this massive war between King Priam and Agamemnon, but did this massive war ever really happen? We have all heard of the mighty wooden horse in which the Greek forces broke into the mighty walls of Troy. The Trojan War did occur and can proven by skeletons, artifacts, and other findings f

The Eastern Empire is referred to today as the Byzantine Empire. The empire was located in Constantinople. The Empire, ruled by Arcadius, was wealthy and heavily populated. It was a Greek-speaking Christian state. This empire was very different from old Rome. Arcadius reigned from 408-450. He, despite his age and inexperience, fortified the empire. Justinian became emperor in 527. He was and able and determined ruler. He waged long wars against the Vandals in Africa, the Ostrogoths on

In the movie Crooklyn, inner city life was portrayed much different than what was expected. When the phrase the hood is heard, images of beaten up buildings, violence, and a sky-high crime rate come to mind. I anticipated a small neighborhood, dominated by African Americans living in poverty. Although the area had probably seen its share of hardships, houses and apartments were kept in good condition. There was little or no violence and crime, except for an occasional grocery store shopli

HIS101 Builders of a Beautiful Kingdom The Ancient Roman culture had a direct impact on how we view art, literature, architecture, education and religion. Early Roman civilizations were very sophisticated and idealistic. They build great architectural buildings and performed famous playwrights at these ancient places. Romans were considered to most advanced civilization of their time. With beautiful statues, well designed buildings, and some of the greatest philosophers came from Rom

Revolutionary Roman Throughout time, certain individuals have been known as revolutionaries. Some of these were political, others social, others military. While some excel in one of these realms, the greatest figures will impact all of these. Marius was the most “revolutionary” of the individuals that shaped the course of the Roman Revolution, in that his action departed the most radically from the traditional framework of the Roman mos maiorem and from the actions of his predece

Title: The Roman Empire and the Early United States A comparison The purpose of this paper is to show the comparison between remarkable empires that were created in many years apart. I chose to compare Pre-World War I United States and the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire information is said to be recorded between 753BC – 1184 BC (ThinkQuest) and the Pre World War I information is between late 19th century and early 20th century (Encarta). Included in this paper will be in inform

In 133 BC, the Republic of Rome took control of the Mediterranean Sea. The empire was prosperous and strong, but eventually experienced a downfall. The fall of the Western Roman Empire was caused by internal decay in political and military issues, economics, sociology, and religion. The political and military state of Rome started to decline after the death of Marcus Aurelius in A.D. 180. When he died, his spoiled son, Commodus, took over. Commodus was a poor leader causing civil wars a

Allusions in Canto IV of Dante’s Inferno Adam was the first man, whose creation, fall and history are told in the opening chapters of Genesis. Abel, in Hebrew Hebel (breath, vapor), the second son of Adam, murdered by his brother Cain. He was considered by God to be a man of faith Noah was spared for his piety when God, angered at the corruption of the world, destroyed it with a flood lasting 40 days and 40 nights. Noah had been warned to build the ark, and to take on board wi

"Warfare in Roman Europe"During the period of a.d. 350 - 425 the Roman empire was engaged in advanced forms of warfare. The history of Roman warfare during the late periods and during the medival periods has had much study. History of the Roman army of the 4th and 5th centuries is less comprehensive. The book "Warfare in Roman Europe ad 350-425" provides some insight onto the important military and social aspects of the subject. Economic and social factors play a part in the history of R

The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire The primary reason for the Roman Empires decline and eventual fall was the dwindling of the Roman Empire's economic might. This affected nearly every aspect of Roman life, from the decline of the population to the lack of maintenance of foundation. There were also some military aspects that led to there demise and because people became disinterested in joining the Roman army Rome was left unprotected against all of their enemies. The

similar ways. Troy’s family is one that strives to maintain a sense of harmony and balance in the household. They avoid conflict, knowing that Troy’s irrational reactions are not worth enduring far any reason. The members of the family that makes the most effort to keep the family level is Troy’s wife, Rose. The narrator tells us that Rose is a gentle woman. She cares a great deal for her family and her husband, despite the challenge of making her home a positive environment u

Michael Buchbinder The Greeks contributed many things to today’s society. Their ideas were extremely innovative and they lived in a time of great discoveries. Their influence has touched on subjects such as philosophy, politics, medicine, math, and art, to name just a few. The men who developed these important ideas many years ago benefit each one of us and have an important effect on today’s culture. There are many famous Greek philosophers. One of the most famous is Socrates.

The life of the great teacher and philosopher of China,Confucius was hard for him because his father died when he was only three and he lived with his father's second wife.He was born 551 B.C. and died 479 B.C.When he was alive he was a great influence on China and it's ways of life.He was born into a noble famliy and was noble to everyone who asked for something of him and it was either teaching or a task he would do it if it was right. When Confucius was born he had another name,h

Justinian I Justinian had a very significant role in world history. There are many things that are overlooked when speaking of Justinian. For instance, Justinian was a great architect. Many times we overlook the little characteristics of Justinian and we focus on the code of Justinian. Justinian was born a barbarian, probably born of Slavic parents in Illyia. We know nothing of his early years except that his uncle adopted him. His uncle was Justin I, the emperor of Constantino

Hammurabi In his position as king of Babylonia, Hammurabi managed to organize the world’s first code of law and establish Babylon as the dominant and successful Amorite City of its time. Records written on clay tablets show that Hammurabi was a very capable administrator and a successful warrior. His rule spanned from 1792 B.C. to 1750 B.C. When he became king in 1792, he was still young, but had already become entrusted with many official duties in his administration. In the earl

Alexander the Great and His Achievements Alexander the Great was the king of Macedon. Alexander of Macedon, or ancient Mecadonia, deserves to be called the "Great". Alexander the Great was considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all times. He was an excellent king, general, and conqueror. During his thirteen-year rule he conquered almost all the then known world and gave a new direction to history. He had established an empire after he died. His new empire helped many peo

Did the Roman Empire deserve to Fall?No The achievements of the Roman Empire were unmatched at its time. Many things it accomplished are ideas and ways of life that did not become widespread until after its fall. The Roman Empire would have made the advancement of people in Europe much faster. The Roman Empire was the most modern ancient empire. It made many advancements in the arts and sciences. It had many great poets, philosophers, artists, and engineers. The Romans encouraged l

In the year 1162, Temujin was born, later to be known and feared as the great Genghis Khan. Merkit warriors poisoned his father when he turned ten years old, and then became chief. The whole tribe fled. He lived a lonely life, owning only seven sheep, sometimes digging for food. "My greatest good fortune was to chase and defeat my enemies, conquer his lands and people, and share his riches." In this paper, I will examine how a man like Genghis Khan, one clearly of humble beginnings

Did Rome Fall? There is no certain official date considered to be that of the fall of Rome. Many historians though, believe it was in 476 A.D. A small German chief named Odoacer captured Rome and proclaimed himself king. The city of Rome was finally overthrown. It was towards the end of the second century A.D. in which the Roman Empire began to weaken. The fall was caused by internal decay in political and military issues, economics, and sociology. The question on many minds though, is t

Columbus Essay In April, 1492, Spain received reports that the Portuguese succeeded in reaching the Indian Ocean, therefore Spanish monarchs authorized Christopher Columbus to sail to Asia and establish trade and start to convert natives to Christianity. The reasons that the monarchs let Columbus sail were mainly to search for spices and profits, spread Christianity, and to use some of their new technology like the caravel. In return, Columbus would receive one-tenth of all the profi

ALEXANDER THE GREAT ALEXANDROS PHILIPPOU MAKEDONON (356-323 BC). More than any other world conqueror, Alexander III of Macedon, or ancient Macedonia, deserves to be called the Great. Although he died before the age of 33, he conquered almost all the then known world and gave a new direction to history. Alexander was born in 356 BC at Pella, the capital of Macedon, a kingdom north of Hellas (Greece). Under his father, Philip II, Macedon had become strong and united, the first real nation in

Influence of Ancient Greek Times All through history the Greeks have influenced our lives in more ways than most people could imagine. To this day we use many ideas and ways of life that the Greeks used thousands of years ago. "Everywhere Greek traders went, they took Greek ideas with them. People throughout the ancient world were influenced by Greek thought and culture." "Their greatness was largely the result of achievements of their artists, scientists, and philosophers." The Gr

Socrates, considered by many historians as the greatest mind to ever live, spent his final days under the false accusations of the law. These accusation were that Socrates was not worshipping the gods of the popular ancient culture, and was also corrupting the young with his constant questioning of the truths of other philosophers. Socrates defended himself under the eyes of the court, and proved to all through reason that the accusations of the court were false. However, the jury had found

Hippocrates, the central historical figure in Greek medicine, was born in Kos between 470-460 B.C. He was born of an ancestor of Aselepios, the son of Apollo, named Heraklides. He greatened his education by traveling. He traveled often and widely before he settled in Kos to practice and teach medicine. Hippocrates taught in Athens and worked on squaring the circle and also worked on duplicating the cube. He grew far in these areas and although his work is not lost, it must have contained

Why Socrates should be found guilty? In 470 B. C or 469 B. C a Greek Philosopher named Socrates was born in Athens. He was the son of Sophroniscus who was a sculptor. Researchers has said that Socrates was brought up as a sculptor. Socrates later abandoned it. When Peloponesion war broke out, Socrates went into active service and he earned high praises by the people of Athens for his courage and his endurance. Socrates took part in three war campaign for Athens. The seize of Potidea