History: Ancient Essays & Term Papers

119 total

Alexander the Great was a great military leader for many reasons. His life was filled with events that would provide him with valuable experience. The people with whom he was close while growing up urged him to try his hardest, and this also contributed to his great leadership. In the following paper, I will explain how Alexander's parents and education, among other things, helped him to gain the necessary experience and qualities of a good leader, and how he used this experience as he got

The training of Rome\'s Legions was very hard. The Legions were trained to obey every order given by their superior. Their drills were described to be as brutal as actual combat with their enemies. Their weapons were thrust as hard against their fellow Legions as they were in battle against their enemies. Their drill weapons were twice as heavy as their weapons used in the battle field and were made of wood. The Legions also had to train with excess baggage to make them stronger. The disci

Hypatia of Alexandria, written by Maria Dzielska is a book that highlights the fascinating life of the famous mathematician and philosopher Hypatia of Alexandria. Dzielska describes the life and time of Hypatia through many different sources and interpretations of history. She also describes the difficulties involved in producing a biography of a person about whom we are remarkably ill-informed. Dzielska through her book tries to compose an understanding of Hypatia, her accomplishments and

The Pythagorean theory is probably more widely known than any other complex mathematical idea. The theorem was first used by the Eygptians , butthey had no mathematical proof that the idea was correct. Pythagoras is credited with being the first to prove the theorem. The Pythagorean theorem, which is important in all technology, proved that the sum of the squares on the short two sides of a right triangle is equal to the square of the hypotenuse. (A right triangle has one angle of 90

History Essay The Romans once had an incredible army, consisting of many well trained, strong soldiers. Yet, as times passed and the Empires' population grew increasingly smaller, the Romans began accepting Barbarians into their army. Once these Barbarians, such as Germans began infiltrating, the Romans lost more and more control. Furthermore, these new soldiers were not as strong as the previous ones or as devoted and dedicated to Rome. The disintegration of the Roman army from the day o

My report is about Chad, it is a large country in the north-central part of Africa. These are some of the interesting statistics I learned about Chad. The republic of Chad is the largest country of the former French Equatorial Africa. It occupies 1,284,000 km and had a population of 4,752,000. It is bounded on the north by Libya, on the east of Sudan, on the south of by the Central African Republic, on the southwest by Cameroon, and on the west by Nigeria. The capital is N'Diamena, formerly

Pompeii was a city on the South West Coast of Italy. Herculeum and Neapolis where by Pompeii. Pompeii comes from a word in the Oscan Language. The Oscan people built a city around 800 - 700 B. C. . Oscan language was used up to 80 B. C. . The Ionia Greeks took over the Pompeii around the 8th century. They didn't change the city name Pompeii was a fairly large city for that time. Pompeii was built on a ridge of volcanic rock. Vesuvius is near the present Day City of Naples. 62 A.

In what today is ! as Iraq there once was a great civilization ! as Babylonia, which at one time could have ! the world and was home to the second wonder of the world. Babylonia ! an ancient region ! the Tigris and Euphrates river ! what is now southern Iraq near the end of the Fertile Cresent. This great civilization first ! around 3500 B.C. and ! to crumble after the year 323 B.C. The Babylonian culture was sucessful because of the people ! in Babylonia's cities, their technology, and

Augustus Caesar Augustus Caesar was born Gaius Octavius on September 23, 63 BC His mother, Atia, was the niece of Julius Caesar; her mother was Caesar's sister. Octavian's family was an old and wealthy one from the small town of Velitrae. Octavian's father died when he was four years old and he was adopted by his great uncle Julius Caesar. At the age of 16 Octavius traveled to Spain with Julius in his campaign against Pompey the great. During the journey Octavian suffered many hardships in

Lenin's political finesse, his understanding of the strength of the peasantry and his rewriting of the communist thought are the characteristics which made Lenin one of the greatest leaders of Russia. Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov, was born on April 22, 1870, in Simbirsk, on the bank of the Volga river. Ilya Nikolayevich Ulyanov, a man with high cheek bones, a dark complexion and dark brown eyes, all of which Lenin inherited, was Lenin's father, and was the director of scho

In 560 BC the world saw two great civilizations, India and Egypt, developing at a striking pace and contributing a lot to the future development of mankind. The politics, religion, and achievements played a major role in the development of these two countries in 560 BC which proved to be a period when both civilizations made big strides in these arenas. The 26th Dynasty of Egypt existed from 664-525 BC and was a very successful dynasty. It was set up by Psamtik I, who was also called Psammetich

For men who had easily endured hardship, danger and difficult uncertainty, leisure and riches, though in some ways desirable, proved burdensome and a source of grief. Sallust The causes for the breakdown of the early Roman Republic cannot be attributed to a single event, trend or individual, rather it was due to a combination of all three in varying degrees. The principal and fundamental cause was the breakdown of the political checks and balances, particularly the Cursus Honorum from 1

The Hanging Gardens of Babylon are one of the most controversial wonders of the world, simply because their existence can not be proved or denied. Many early historians talked about the Gardens, many did not. They today would lay inside of the great nation of Iraq, so archeological research is rather difficult for obvious reasons, the site is said to be 50 miles south of present day Baghdad. Their existence will probably never be proven or denied. In fact, all we know about the Gardens

 During the New Kingdom of Egypt, from 1552 through 1069 BC, there came a sweeping change in the religious structure of the ancient Egyptian civilization. The Hymn to the Aton was created by Amenhotep IV, who ruled from 1369 to 1353 BC, and began a move toward a monotheist culture instead of the polytheist religion which Egypt had experienced for the many hundreds of years prior to the introduction of this new idea. There was much that was different from the old views in

Constantine I was perhaps most well known for being the first Christian emperor of the Roman Empire. His instigation of the conversion of the entire Roman Empire from paganism to Christianity also ensured him recognition in history. For all intents and purposes, Constantine was the single ruler of the Roman Empire from 324 to 337 AD. His reign was perhaps the most distinctive out of all of Rome's emperors, insofar as having an impact on the course of the future of Europe, and ultima

The Theogony was written by Hesiod toward the end of the eighth century BC, and it's purpose was to serve as a genealogy of the Olympians for the Greeks, as well as offer an explanation as to how the Olympians came to be their gods. The event of primary importance is the overthrow of the First order of gods, called the Titans as lead by Kronos, by his youngest son Zeus, who lead the Olympians. Zeus then delegated the power of the previous order of gods among the new order of gods,

Fable is defined as "a tale embodying a moral, using animals, people or inanimate objects as characters." In the case of The Iliad, as well as much of ancient Greek myth, poetry and other forms of literature, fable was used to embellish and expand on actual occurrences in Greek history. Fable offered the Greeks a way to explain much of what went on in their lives, as well as what had occurred in the past. Often heros and other characters that had actually existed in Greek history we

ARISTOTLE Aristotle is one of the most influential philosophers in the History of Western thought. Logic into the 20th century was primarily Aristitlian logic. Aristotle was the founder of biology; Charles Darwin regarded him as the most important contributor to the subject. He is also said to have a great impact on modern physics. His Poetics were the first formal work of literacy criticism. His Poetics had a strong influence on the theory and practice of modern classical dra

The Path to the Western Lands:Death Ritual and Beliefs in Ancient Egypt Most ancient and OprimitiveO societies seem to be possessed with what we would consider an unhealthy preoccupation with death. The greatest architectural achievements of ancient civilizations are either tombs, or temples; that some suggest began as tombs (Jaynes). To appreciate why this might be it is necessary to dismiss our social biases as much as we are able to. The ancients lived in a world where death came quickly

THE HINDU PERSPECTIVE Hinduism, believed to be one of the oldest religions existing today, is most-often described as a philosophy or a perspective. The Hindu perspective is often thought to have been brought to India by the Aryans in about 1500 B.C. The Aryans, along with their predecessors, the Dravidians, brought the ideas of worshipping gods and goddesses in the forms of dieties and many of the stories and myths that came with them. During the Vedic period, which

The Robbery of African Treasures After the abolition of the Slave Trade at the beginning of the nineteenth century British attention on the West African coast was turned towards 'legitimate trade' supplying trade goods in return for raw materials or semi processed commodities, in particular palm oil, a major lubricant for the industrial revolution. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, following the carve up of Africa into 'spheres of influence' by the European powers, the Britis

Early Roman art reflected that of the previous Etruscan civilization, but as time passed , the Romans developed an artistic style completely their own. One very unique aspect of the Roman civilization, which incorporated art, was the use of public baths. At first these public baths consisted merely of dressing room suites and bathing chambers. However these baths began to incorporate elaborately decorated libraries, lecture halls and open forums for the public to mingle among statues of their go

November 19, 1997 By Jordan Bruins Buddhism/Hinduism Comparison Report Hinduism is the oldest known religion and is very rich with literally hundreds of gods, symbolistic rituals and beliefs. It is believed to have been established around 1500 B.C. but no one person founded Hinduism as it evolved over a long period of time. Buddhism on the other hand has a definite founder, Siddhartha Gautama who is otherwi

The Conquests, Coronation, and Rule of Charlemagne Jamie L. Wood Western Civilization Paper #2 Tuesday, November 10, 1998 Charlemagne one of the most ambitious, aggressive, and noble kings of medieval times. He ruled the Franks from 768 to 814 and became Emperor of the Romans from 800-814. During his tenure as Emperor of the Romans Charlemagne created an empire that would be the envy and model for many ambitious monarchs to follow. The coronation of Charlemagne as emperor goes be

By Nick Carroll May my work benefit all!! Sorry about the weird formatting... The topic I chose for the Roman Fair was the munera gladiatorum, or gladiator fights. I researched weapon and armor used in the fights, actual fighting techniques such as the standard thrust and parry, and the areas of the body to strike for the quickest kills. The people in my group researched the history of the gladiator fights, why they took place, and about the life of a gladiator.

Spartacus Spartacus was born in Thrace and was sold into slavery by his mother before he was 12. He had worked as a slave in a mine. When he tried to bite a guard's achilles tendon, he was tied down in the sun and was to starve to death. He was to be used as an example until a man named Bitiutus, came to the mine to buys slaves and train them to be gladiators. Each slave was given a woman. Spartacus was given a woman named Verenia. He didn't do anything with her, and when others

Caesar has Ceased Yesterday a tragedy occurred. The great ruler Julius Caesar is dead. It was said that the Senate, led by Brutus and Cassius stabbed Caesar to death upon his entrance into the Senate. They acted upon this according to the Roman Law which says "Anyone who plotted to become king could be killed without trial." The Senate claimed that this was their reason for their actions. Caesar was born into an aristocratic family in 100. Later on in his life, he became allies with

The Stone Age The Stone Age shaped, developed and formed our modern day form of living. There are numerous facts and events that have occurred throughout time that are evidence of this. "The Stone Age began as far back as two million years ago in some places" (www.bergen.org, April, 1997). This was when neanderthals were roaming the world using primitive weapons to hunt animals as well as searching for other sources of food. Since that

Evolution of Man This report will cover the evolution of man. This report will give the theory and the facts to back it up. Please keep an open mind while reading the following. The most ancient man was about the same as we are, judging from their thighbones. These bones can not really be distinguished from our own. There used to be serious discussion on whether or not Java Man was really erect. Now that we know about australopithecines, we should be more than surprised if he were an

Septimus Severus Revisited Beginning with Edward Gibbons in the late Nineteenth century, L. Septimus Severus has been the man that historians have loved to hate. Historians have maligned his rule as brutal and ineffectual. Gibbons, in his treatise The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, called Septimus "the principle author of the decline of the Roman Empire" (Gibbons 141). However, these historians have overlooked the importance of Septimus Severus' reforms. Septimus made important c

Cher Laurent, Comment ca va ? Moi, ca va bien. Je sais que je n'aie pas repondu a ta lettre, mais j'etais occupe, j'etais en voyage. La semaine passe, j'ai monte abord d'une machine a remonter le temps. C'est un prototype qui controle les reves. Je me suis retrouve en Egypte Ancienne. Voici ce que je me rappelle. Mon nom est Atmodise, je suis une fille agee de 19 ans et mon pere est artisan. Mon voyage dura qu'une journee car j'ai eu la chance d'etre donnee aux dieux. Apres ma mo

THE BUILDING OF THE PYRAMIDS From the reign of Djoser until the beginning if the New Kingdom, almost every pharaoh of substance and authority was buried under a pyramid. The pyramid, introduced by Djoser, reached its most definitive form with the Great Pyramid of Cheops, at Giza. At the end of this long tradition the splendid visions of the earlier dynasties had shrunk to monuments of poorly built steep-sided mud brick, that were no larger that about forty feet square, but a thousand

According to Aristotle, a tragedy is defined by a number of characteristics. The plot must have a major changing point in which a discovery is made and there must be suffering. (Aristotle 638). The main character must also be good, appropriate, realistic, and consistent. The people must be able to sympathize with him (Aristotle 643). Using this definition of tragedy, one can apply it and come to the conclusion that Pericles' life was tragic and Socrates' not. The changing point of Pericles

Imagine yourself back in time, 4500 years ago to a time of discovery and a time of development. Imagine being so loyal to the ruler of your land that you struggle build great monuments, and later burial sites. Monuments and burial sites of such great design and size that to attempt to replicate them today would never equal the great meaning behind them. Back in the area of around 2575 B.C.-2134 BC, in what is known as the old kingdom, the Egyptians built one of the greatest monuments a

Code of Hammurabi Major Idea- Composed by Hammurabi (Babylonian Emperor) Researched past and present customs He selected ones seeming to be important, modifications were made and added Influenced Babylonian Empire, 1760 BC Political Development Unified widely spread empire, with a common system; laws. Also incorporated-common religion;all subjects must worship Marduk-god of Babylon Five Basic Relationships of Confucianism Major Idea- Composed by Kong Qiu (Confu

"Julius Caesar" "Vini, Vidi, Vici" (The Columbia Dictionary of Quotations 10-3-99) which in English means "I came, I saw, I conquered." This was Julius Caesar's motto when he was a soldier and invading different provinces. For this quote to still be recognized today is a compliment to Caesar's importance and fame at the time. Julius Caesar is considered by some historians to be Rome's greatest genius. He changed a chaotic, old system of government into the basis for a new one that

THE EARLY RENAISSANCE The early Renaissance period was a time of new awakenings. It was a slow emergence of self-awareness and human potential. Where exactly the period began is debated, both then and now, and truly does not have a clear and distinct division between the Middle Ages. However, it was after the bubonic plaque, or "Black Death" as it was called, had wiped out half of the population of Europe. And, the population decrease had led to an economic depression. Once the incidence

Augustus was one of the best leaders in history. Not only was he the first official emperor of Rome, but he also rescued Rome from civil war. Augustus' real name was Gaius Octavius. He lived a life which was quite remarkable. Gaius Octavius was born in Rome on September 23, 63 B.C., taking the same name as his father. The historian Suetonius said, "Cassius of Palma sneers at Octavius as the grandson of a baker and a money-changer, writing in one of his letters, 'Your mother's flour came

Monasticism in the Middle Ages in Europe underwent a roller coaster ride of change, due to heavy aristocratic influence. Without the charitable support of their many political and aristocratic patrons, monasteries would not have been able to become as well developed and abundant in the Middle Ages. The monastic decline that took place throughout the Middle Ages that affected many aspects of monasteries of the time can be greatly attributed to the local political and aristocratic figures, who oft

Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedonia was the greatest military leader in the history of the world. Better known as Alexander the Great, he set out to take back the Greek city-states of Asia Minor, but he intended to do so much more. In his life he was king of Macedonia, General of Greece, Master of Asia, and the Pharaoh of Egypt. Many world leaders of the future would look up to him. Julius Caesar said of Alexander "Why have I accomplished so little, when at my age he was

Represented primarily through cathedrals, Romanesque and Gothic styles of architecture were some of the few symbols of civilization in the poverty stricken and often depressing Middle Ages. These cathedrals represented faith, dedication, and cooperation; a sane place in a world of anarchy. Gothic and Romanesque styles of architecture were related in various ways, yet they also contrasted in style in some ways. Romanesque and Gothic architecture, although having many similarities, also

 THE ROMAN MILITARY The Roman Republic and the Roman Empire together lasted for over one-thousand years, and at its height, their extensive territories stretched from the Atlantic Ocean in the West, to the rivers of Mesopotamia in the East, and from the Sahara desert in the South, to the River Rhine in Northern Europe. The one factor that made this spectacula

ANCIENT EGYPT'S PYRAMIDS The first tombs in Egypt were a simple matter of wrapping a body and covering it in rocks. After that they found the body better preserved in a mastaba. A mastaba's sunbaked mud walls were decorated and gave protection against nature.

Euclid is considered one of, if not, the best mathematician there is, there was, and ever will be. He led a simple life as a mathematician, collecting works from others and studying them to come up with his own ideas. This essay will explain his life, death, and his teachings. It also contains information of one of the most famous mathematics books in history, The Elements. Euclid, "The most prominent mathematician of antiquity"(Euclid of Alexandria) lived in Alexandria, Egypt was born around

Chronicle The culture of the ancient Egyptians is extremely interesting. Beliefs The ancient Egyptians had very unique and profound beliefs. Religion had deeply dominated all aspects of the Egyptian culture, its art, science, government, and law. Their entire culture is characterized by their beliefs. An interesting feature of their religion is that they acquired new beliefs but would never disregard old ones (except in specified cases); their new beliefs would build upon other ones.

The Ten Plagues of Egypt The Ten Plagues affected the Ancient Egyptians mercilessly. All their water turns to blood, the land becomes infested with frogs, then lice. There is no light for three days. It got pretty bad for the Egyptians. Somehow, it did not affect the Israelites for one reason or another. It is unclear however, when, and under whose reign these plagues took place. There is very little, if any, scientific evidence supporting the theory that these plagues really did take place

The ancient Romans were very different from the ancient Greeks. The ancient Romans were down-to-earth realists, not idealists. You can see this in their statues. The Greeks made statues of perfect people. The Romans created real life statues. A statue of one of the Roman emperors is a good example. The Romans were fierce soldiers and wonderful builders. They built roads all over the empire, and all roads led to Rome. The ancient Greeks had roads, but they were not built nearly as well, and the

Gladiators of Rome By Bartek Sliwa Gladiators were trained warriors who fought each other to the death to entertain the Roman people. Most of these matches took place at a large Amphitheater called the Colosseum. The majority of them were slaves who were sold to gladiator schools where they were trained to become gladiators. There they were put in different classes that determined what type of a gladiator they would be. Even tough many of t

King Richard 1st was called Coeur de Lion, which means Lion Hearted. He was born in Oxford, England1157. He was the third son of Henry 2nd and Eleanor of Aquitaine. While Richard was still a baby he was betrothed to daughter of the French king Louis VII, and in 1172 he was given the duchy of Aquitaine in France, his mother's inheritance. As a child he spent his time protecting his interests from his father. Richard turned out to be a brilliant solider. When he became king in 1189, he set out on

During its golden age, the sprawling metropolis of Rome was decorated with dozens of beautiful arches veneered with the finest marble and ordained with ivory statues of the gods. Citizens of Rome were entertained by literally thousands of fountains and bathes supplied with scores of aqueducts (Hadas 37). The city became a cosmopolitan metropolis that reached a peak population of between six hundred- thousand and one million people. All of these people were supplied with grain and merchandise fro