Economy Essays & Term Papers

308 total

Leadership has meaning only in an organizational context, and only in the sense of on managing within a system of inequalities. Superior-subordinate relationships help to define leadership behavior, and the culture in any particular society influences the nature of these relationships. Two leadership roles are common to all societies, however. The first is the Charismatic role, or the capability to provide vision and inspiration. This emphasized by transformational leadership con

Ben & Jerry¡¦s was experiencing a steady growth within their sales figures from 1990 to 1993. However, In March 1994, Cost of Sales increased approximately $9.6 million or 9.5% over the same period in 1993, and the overall gross profit as a percentage of net sales decreased from 28.6% in 1993 to 26.2% in 1994. This loss might have been a result of several reasons, such as high administration and selling costs, a negative impact of inventory management, and start up costs associ

Leading the Revolution was written by Gary Hamel and published in September of 2000. Hamel writes a how to book on creating the new dynamic organization. His main theme is that old business strategies are not going to survive in what he calls the age of Revolution. In his premise to the book, he states that he will show the reader how to become a revolutionary in the business world. He completes his stated task by explaining the difference between contemporary strategy and revolut

Economic History The Gold Standard, like the Exchange Rate Mechanism, ensures stable exchanges and economic discipline. Why, then, was there so many criticism of the return to gold in 1925? In March 1919, the large trade deficit and low level of gold reserves resulted in formal abandonment of the gold stand by the UK. On Apr. 28, 1925, Churchill announced in his Budget speech that there would be an immediate return to gold at pre-1913 parity. Reddaway (Lloyds Bank Re

Straight up or mixed, whiskey or wine "“ Brown-Forman's got a drink for you. The Louisville, Kentucky based company is the best known for its world famous whiskeys, Jack Daniel's and Southern Comfort. It's wine and spirits segment manufactures, bottles, imports, exports and markets a wide variety of other alcoholic beverages and wines (Bel Arbors and Bolla). But Brown-Forman is also part of a consumer durables segment which sells fine china (Dansk and Lenox), sterling silver jewell

- 2. Buffer Stocks - One step a government might take in order to stabilize agricultural prices is to use the technique of buffer stocks. The very basic idea of this is letting the government set a minimum price on agricultural goods. This price will usually be above the price where demand meets supply, so the government must buy the excess quantity produced, in order to stabilize prices. This quantity will then be stored till, for example, next year where there is a bad harvest

Building in the Voice of the Customer. (Quality Functional Deployment.) In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of : BA(Ordinary) Food Marketing Building in the Voice of the Customer. The first understanding of "building in the voice of the customer" for the manufacturer, are you producing a product that the consumer feels satisfied with? Within so many products there are sometimes so many misunderstandings because the customer and the product developme

The Executive Summary The executive summary is arguably the most important section of the business plan. It must be concise, specific, and well-written. It summarizes the highlights of the completed business plan and provides a brief snapshot of the plan, with sales, spending, and profit summary figures. The summary emphasizes those factors that will make the business a success. It must contain sound numbers for market size, trends, company goals, spending, return on inve

Benetton's formula has been to establish a global franchise operation with very strict standards of control of products, supply. Presentation and stocking in stores. By rethinking the manufacturing process so that garments are dyed as the last step in the manufacturing process so that garments are dyed as the last step in the manugfacturing process, Benetton has minimized variation in manufacture and considerably shortened the supply chain. Further, by making heavy use of informatio

PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH HYPTHESIS In this assignment, we will attempt to study the effects that difference in Income Ratio (henceforth known as I.R.) between the years 1980 and 1990 have on the Productivity Growth (P.G.) during the same period of time. The Income Ratio of one specific year can be found if we take the average income of the richest faction of a country (the richest 20% of the population) and divide it by that of the poorest faction (the poo

Capitalism A form of economic order characterized by private ownership of the means of production and the freedom of private owners to use, buy and sell their property or services on the market at voluntarily agreed prices and terms, with only minimal interference with such transactions by the state or other authoritative third parties. Communism 1.Any ideology based on the communal ownership of all property and a classless so

Capitalism Capitalism is the name given to the economic system that incorporates free enterprise and a market system by Karl Marx, the founder of communism. By the textbook definition, capitalism is an economic system in which private individuals and business firms carry on the production and the exchange of goods and services through a complex network of prices and markets. (Heilbroner1 13-15) Capitalism is a philosophy that originated in Europe, where it evolved and reached it

Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China's leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China's premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution which had had as their bases ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems produced by Hua Gu

The circular flow model is defined as the flow of resources from households to firms and of products to firms from households. These flows are accompanied by reverse flows of money from firms to households and from households to firms. The circular flow is comprised of the resource market, households, product market, businesses, and the government. Macroeconomics - The study of the aggregate (total) Behavior of the whole economy. Macroeconomics Aggregates: - Unemployment r

Executive Summary: Circus Circus Enterprises is a leader and will continue to be in the gaming industry. In recent years, they have seen a decline in profit and revenue; management tends to blame the decrease on continuing disruptions from remodeling, expansion, and increased competition. Consequently, Circus has reported decreases in its net income for 1997 and 1998 and management believes this trend will continue as competition heightens. Currently the company is involved in s

The Coca-Cola company started out as an insignificant one man business and over the last one hundred and ten years it has grown into one of the largest companies in the world. The first operator of the company was Dr. John Pemberton and the current operator is Roberto Goizueta. Without societies help, Coca-Cola could not have become over a 50 billion dollar business. Coca-Cola was invented by Dr. John Pemberton, an Atlanta pharmacist. He concocted the formula

Introduction The soft-drink battleground has now turned toward new overseas markets. While once the United States, Australia, Japan, and Western Europe were the dominant soft-drink markets, the growth has slowed down dramatically, but they are still important markets for Coca-Cola and Pepsi. However, Eastern Europe, Mexico, China, Saudi Arabia, and India have become the new "hot spots." Both Coca-Cola and Pepsi are forming joint bottling ventures in these nations and in other ar

Collective Bargaining: A Great Social Invention? = "There's strength in numbers" This is a cliché, or could even be called a proverb that most of us have heard at some stage in our lives. It also lies at the heart of collective bargaining, and it provides a reasonable, although simplistic reason for the use of collective bargaining, and also gives us an indication of where and for whom it is most useful. Collective bargaining's origins lie in one of man's primary instinc

The Standard Oil Company founded by John D. Rockefeller and the U.S. Steel Company founded by Andrew Carnegie. The Standard Oil Company and U.S. Steel Company were made successful in different ways due to the actions of their different owners. The companies differed in their labor relations, market control, and structural organization. In the steel industry, Carnegie developed a system known as vertical integration. This means that he cut out the midd

Introduction The U.S. economy was at the height of economic expansion, stocks were near all time highs, corporate profits were strong, and the unemployment rate was at its lowest in two decades. At the same time, the major corporations in the United States were firing workers by the hundreds of thousands, and job insecurity had risen to an extremely high level. What was also ironic was the fact that the corporations who were initiating the downsizings were considered to be s

"Spending financed not by current tax receipts, but by borrowing or drawing upon past tax reserves." , Is it a good idea? Why does the U.S. run a deficit? Since 1980 the deficit has grown enormously. Some say its a bad thing, and predict impending doom, others say it is a safe and stable necessity to maintain a healthy economy. When the U.S. government came into existence and for about a 150 years thereafter the government managed to keep a balanced budget. The only times a bu

The downsizing of corporations in America today has been brought about by two dominant factors: advancements in technology and globalization of markets. Technology has forced the American worker to adapt to their surroundings or lose their jobs. This is especially true for the uneducated, workers with minimal skills, and for the rest of the workforce who are not computer literate. That is not to say, however, that educated or trained workers are not subject to downsizing. It has

Table of Contents I. E-Commerce: An Introduction II. History of E-Commerce III. Economic Impact IV. Advantages of E-Commerce V. Disadvantages of E-Commerce VI. The Future of E-Commerce E-Commerce ¡V An Introduction With the astonishing growth of the Internet, many companies are finding new and exciting ways to expand upon their business opportunities. There are very few successful companies that do not use computers in their everyday business ac

Introduction An e-commerce solution for a business is the incorporation of all aspects of the business operation into an electronic format. Many well-established businesses have been selling on-line for years. For example, Dell Computers Corp., has been selling computers directly to end-users for years. Currently, Dell is selling excessive of 1 million dollars worth of computers everyday on the World Wide Web (WWW). When a business has incorporated an e-commerce solution, the b

Hawaii, with an area of 28,313 sq. km (10,932 sq. mi.), is the 43rd largest state in the U.S.; 6.9% of the land is owned by the federal government. It consists mainly of the Hawaiian Islands, eight main islands and 124 islets, reefs, and shoals. The major islands in order of size are Hawaii, Maui, Oahu, Kauai, Molokai, Lanai, Nihau, and Kahoolawe. Population growth has increased by 80,000 persons over the past five years. Demographics show a large number of Hispanic origin: Asian His

Common Idea Economic growth is the most important study in economics today. The first book on economics was by Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations the full title was the Inquire Into The Nature And Sources Of The Wealth Of Nations. "Economic growth determines a countries future, and economic growth in the past determines a countries present as far as it's material values are concerned." (Buechner Recording) So every material value of the modern world is a result economic growth

The bases of every market are the property rights of the individuals that participate in the market. Without property rights there would be no exchange and difficult to establish contract laws. Property rights were taken for granted for much of history and are now used to establish all sorts of theories, philosophies and regulation. Two excellent examples of this are the Libertarian political party and the Coase Theorem. As for the value of these two applications of private prop

1. Traffic Congestion If a city council faces severe problems with traffic congestion, a knowledge will benefit all parties. It is this I will debate in the lines to come. When traffic is a problem in a city, all sorts of means of transportation can be included, but it is mainly cars which seem to be the problem. Therefor raising gasolin prices (by putting an extra tax on them) should instinctively reduce car usage, seeing that costs for the driver would go up. This is though on

The People's Republic of China, the most populous country and third largest in the world, was once the home of a centrally planned economic system; a system that held the country for decades past in an economic and global market limbo. But now, with China's attempts to create its new "socialist market economy," it is quickly becoming one of the world's fastest growing economies and is currently the world's third largest. It is with this economic surge that China has so rapidly b

How can we bridge the gulf between rich and poor within nations and between successfully developed and less developed economies? I feel that this has been and on going problem in our society. I don't feel that there is a way that we can actually bridge the gap between the rich and poor, but there are things that the rich can do for the poor. The United States is notorious for trying to give aid to needy countries. We have organizations that send food and medical assistance to co

The Economic Effects of the Civil War The Economies of the North and South, 1861-1865 In 1861, a great war in American history began. It was a civil war between the north and south that was by no means civil. This war would have great repercussions upon the economy of this country and the states within it. The American Civil War began with secession, creating a divided union of sorts, and sparked an incredibly cataclysmic four years. Although the actual war began with seces

From a business perspective, working under government contracts can be a very lucrative proposition. In general, a stream of orders keep coming in, revenue increases and the company grows in the aggregate. The obvious downfalls to working in this manner is both higher quality expected as well as the extensive research and documentation required for government contracts. If a part fails to perform correctly it can cause minor glitches as well as problems that can carry serious repercu

Abstract Although I am a strong critic of the use and effectiveness of economic sanctions, such as trade embargoes, for the sake of this assignment, I will present both their theoretical advantages and their disadvantages based upon my research. Trade embargoes and blockades have traditionally been used to entice nations to alter their behavior or to punish them for certain behavior. The intentions behind these policies are generally noble, at least on the surface. However, t

The complexion of farming is changing radically. The land cannot support as many farm families as it did in an earlier time. Small farms are being consolidated into larger ones. General farms, with several kinds of crops and a barnyard of farm animals, are yielding to specialty farms that concentrate on a single major crop. Family farms are declining; corporate farms are increasing. Efficiency is growing. Crops are changing. Techniques are improving. Just as the train, tractor, truck

Introduction The purpose of this report is to examine the external factors affecting Ford Motor Company within the last four years. Dr. John L. Waltman has authorized this report. It is based on secondary sources, mainly gathered through the First Search Periodical Index. Authorized Publication includes Wall Street Journal, Financial Times, New York Times, and sources from the Internet. This report examines and analyzes these three external factors: v Consumer Demand v Inc

Formerly the preeminent republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Russia has been an independent nation since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Because of its great size, its natural resources, and its political domination, the Russian Federation played a leading role in the economy of the Soviet Union. In the years preceding the disintegration of the union in 1991, the economy of Russia and the union as a whole was in decline. In 1992, immediately aft

history farm subsidies: a necessary evil? Subsidies are payments, economic concessions, or privileges given by the government to favor businesses or consumers. In the 1930s, subsidies were designed to favor agriculture. John Steinbeck expressed his dislike of the farm subsidy system of the United States in his book, The Grapes of Wrath. In that book, the government gave money to farms so that they would grow and sell a certain amount of crops. As a result, Steinbeck argued, many peop

Frito-Lay Inc. has a very profitable dip product line. This is not only a great deal now, but also has shown tremendous sales growth over the past few years. In 1981 their sales reached 30 million dollars, with the sales figures almost tripling by 1985, reaching 87 million dollars. However, this success brings the corporation into a very unique situation as well as bringing up a very good question of "how to develop this further?" Their options boil down to two different viewpoints

Gates vs. Rockefeller (an epic duel between to huge business moguls) Over the years there have been many businesses and businessman. Some have prospered and some have lost everything. But only a select few have ever dominated an entire market and form a true monopoly. The government forbids such businesses but people still strive to achieve such stature. The two true powerhouses of the past 300 years in the business world would undoubtedly be William Henry Gates 3rd and Joh

In the last several years, the increased diffusion of computer and telecommunications technologies in businesses and homes has produced new ways for organizations to connect with their customers. These computer mediated environments (CMEs) such as the World Wide Web raise new research questions. In this paper, we examine the potential research issues associated with CMEs in five areas: (1) decision processes, (2) advertising and communications, (3) brand choice, (4) brand com

For a number of reasons, business enterprise in New York grew by leaps and bounds between 1825 and 1860. New York's growth between the years 1825 and 1860 can be attributed to a number of factors. These include but cannot be limited to the construction of the Erie Canal, the invention of the telegraph, the developed of the railroads, the establishment of Wall Street and banking, the textile, shipping, agriculture and newpaper industries, the development of

AIDS and YOU (May 1987) By Martin H. Goodman MD (this essay is in the public domain) Introduction: AIDS is a life and death issue. To have the AIDS disease is at present a sentence of slow but inevitable death. I've already lost one friend to AIDS. I may soon lose others. My own sexual behavior and that of many of my friends has been profoundly altered by it. In my part of the country

HMOs: The Health Care of the Beast Many people are concerned about rising health care costs. In reaction to this, some individuals and companies are gravitating toward the assumed lower prices of Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) health plans. HMOs spend billions of dollars each year advertising their low cost services. While these savings look good on paper, there are many pages of small print. The explanation after the asterisk indicates that not only do the HMOs lac

With today's workforce becoming increasingly diverse and organizations doing more to maximize the benefits of the differences in employees, Human Resource managers are evolving from the "old school" sideline player to the front-line fighters. Organizations are relying on managers to get the people who get the job done, and of course, make the company money. People have always been central to organizations, but their strategic importance is growing in today's knowledge-based business

In Search of Excellence is a book dealing with many different principles of economics and what makes big business' excellent. The first idea that Peters discusses is his chart of the McKinsey 7-S Framework. The graph is very simple but the ideas are fairly complex. In their research, they found that their philosophies were too hard to explain and easily forgettable. They made this Framework to deal with strategy, structure, style, systems, staff (people), skills, and shared values (c

The companies who want to acquire Internet address are facing many difficulties nowadays. There is clearly an excess of demand in domain name business. The prices of effective Web-site addresses have become very expensive. Initially, there were so-called cybersquatters, speculators, who brought attention to the Internet domain name business. They registered well-known brand names with the intention of selling them at much higher price. For example, they bought the URL www.McDona

The Law of diminishing returns is a key one in economics. It is used to explain many of the ways the economy works and changes. It is a relatively simple idea; spending and investing more and more in a product where one of the factors of production remains the same means the enterprise will eventually run out of steam. The returns will begin to diminish in the long run. If more fertilizer and better machinery are used on an acre of farmland, the yield will increase for a while b

Ever have the feeling where you don't really know if you are dreaming or awake? That feeling of conscious awaking in you dreams where you are able to control yourself, your movements, and your wishes. This can be defined as lucid dreams. Roughly one-third of our lives we spend on sleeping, and significant amount of this time is spent on dreaming. So why not enjoy our dreams by controlling them, instead of letting dreams controlling us. The term "lucid", came from Frederik Van Eed

Market power, which is at the heart of the debate over ownership and control of the electricity transmission network, has been identified by the FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) as a potential impediment to the development of an unencumbered competitive market for electricity. Market power exists when a producer or consumer is able to influence prices for their benefit. The ability to influence prices may result from a small number of producers or consumers, a significantl

Introduction Marketing Boards are government involved ways of regulating farmer's production and price, while protecting the overall profit of every farmer in that particular production. Since there is nothing farmers can do about the inelastic nature of the demand for farm products, the key to supporting and stabilizing farm prices and incomes lies in controlling the supply of farm products. In other words, farmers would benefit greatly from an oligopolistic (banning firms