Biology Essays & Term Papers

212 total

Today, all multicellular organism are composed of eukaryotic cells which are larger and more complex than prokaryotes. These eukaryotic cells consist of organelles, such as mitochondria and peroxisomes, which were once believed to have been prokaryotes. We will find that these two organelles, which have triumphed through evolution, serve important functions within cells. We will begin with peroxisomes which are believed to have been engulfed by a larger, eukaryotic, primitive phagocyt

The Modern Synthesis is the theory used to explain and predict all of the traits, variation and changes in living things. It combines the older theories of evolution and Mendelian genetics with more recent discoveries in molecular genetics and cellular biology. Pheno- and genotypical changes can be explained and observed on the molecular, cellular, individual and populace scale through the modern synthesis. Most multicellular plants and animals reproduce sexually; each parent contributing hal

In the past 300 million years, an innumerable variety of vertebrate species have evolved from the bony fishes of the early Paleozoic. At several points in evolutionary history, there have been periods of relatively rapid adaptation and expansion of organisms known as adaptive radiations. These are limited only by a speciesO adaptive potential and the adaptive opportunities of the environment. There have been three major adaptive radiations of terrestrial vertibrates. The first of these wa

Leprosy Report Leprosy has been around for thousands of years, since the biblical times. It was first identified by Gerhard A. Hansen in 1873. It was the first bacterium to be identified as disease causing in humans. It should be known that the word 'leper' has connotations of immorality and uncleanness and is considered very offensive. Leprosy is a chronic bacterial disease of the upper respiratory tract, skin, nerves in the hands and feet, and the lining of the nose. Leprosy is unco

1. In order to grow and survive an organism must metabolize. In order to metabolize, an organism must have access to nutrients and O2 at the cellular level. Within the kingdom Animalia, there are several solutions to the problem of delivery of said nutrients and O2. Discuss, in a written format, the various internal structural adaptations (their form and function) associated with each of the four heart configurations discussed in class which facilitate the delivery of nutrients starting at th

Definitions: Cell Wall A structure made of cellulose that is, in the plant, responsible for many tasks. Firstly, it maintains the shape of the cell, and secondly it protects the cell from external forces. It also serves as a connector between the cell in question and its neighboring cells. Cell Membrane A thin and flexible membrane used to hold the cell together (the example given in the text was: "Like a sausage skin"). Since it is semi-permeable, it prevents unwanted materials from en

Bacteria Bacteria is a simple organism that consist of one cell. They are among the smallest living thing on earth. Most bacteria measures from about 0.3 to 2.0 microns in diameter, and can only be seen through a microscope. Scientist classify bacteria according to shape. Cocci are round and sometimes linked together. Bacilli look like rods, and Vibrios resembles bent rods. There are two types of spiral-shaped bacteria, spirochetes and spirilla. Bacteria exist almost anywhere you

Hearing Loss Not more than a few decades ago deaf children would never learn to speak. They would be referred to as deaf mutes and people thought that the reason they had a hearing loss and couldn't speak was because their brain functioned wrong and they didn't know how to use their vocal cords. Scientific research and technology have proven that these two theories are wrong and that people with a hearing loss can indeed talk. They just need lots of encouragement and hard work at learning pr

Debates on Bioethics have been a central and key in society's thoughts on new and involved medical science, as it conflicts with our own predetermined morals and value judgements. The more advanced our medicine becomes the more we must question, how much should we know about each other, as well as how much should we know about ourselves? The presented case, that of Susan M., provides an interesting look at the right of a parents knowledge of their child's prenatal condition, as well as the do

Lupus Lupus is an autoimmune disorder which means that the body's immune system is not functioning normal and it's attacking the normal tissue, instead of the bactieria and viruses or in other words the body's immune system is hurting itself. The body is just reacting to unknown stimilus and it makes too many antibodies, or proteins directed against body tissue. It's the complete opposite that happens in A.I.D.S. and Cancer a virus or disease breaks down in the immune system unlike Lup

The End Permian Mass Extinction Outline I. Introduction Think of a world which existed 290 million years ago. As you look out over the terran in front of you, you think that you are on an alien planet. You see volcanoes spewing ash and lava. Beside them is the ocean which is swarming with many different species of echinoderms, bryozoans and brachiopods. As you look down onto the sea floor you are amazed at the countless number of starfish and urchins. Some animals leave you can't even de

Leaf-cutting Ants Grant Erickson One of the most little known species of ants in North America is the leaf-cutter ant. This is mainly because it lives in tropical environments and it is not aggressive to animals or humans if not disturbed. The leaf cutting ant is a social insect. Alone the ant is virtually helpless but with the colony it can be a thing feared by animal and human alike. The leaf-cutting ants have a very important role in the tropical forest. They create and manipulate th

Sea Lamprey: A Great Lakes Invader Sea lampreys are aquatic vertebrates native to the Atlantic Ocean. Sea lampreys resemble eels, but unlike eels, they feed on large fish. They can live in both salt and fresh water. Sea lampreys, now found in all the Great Lakes, attach to fish with a sucking disk and sharp teeth. Sea lampreys feed on body fluids, often scarring and killing host fish. To control this destructive aquatic nuisance, state, federal, provincial and tribal agencies in both t

Although widely unknown to the American public, many of America's waterways are in extreme danger from something besides pollution. A new organism has been introduced that has the possibility to be deadlier than any pollution imaginable. This new threat is the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). A zebra mussel is a fresh water mussel that filters every bacteria in a water system until there is nothing left, including the zebra mussel. This can swiftly cripple any body of water. Z

Data: First Round Check Mass of Piece 1 After 10 minutes Mass of Piece 1 After 20 Minutes Mass of Piece 1 After 30 Minutes Mass of Piece 1 After 40 Minutes +60? Water 2.1 2.5 2.5 2.0 10? Water 2.1 2.4 2.2 2.1 Sugar Solute 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.2 Salt Solute 2.1 2.0 2.4 2.1 Room Temp. Water (C.) 2.1 1.9 2.2 2.3 First Round Check Mass of Piece 2 After 10 minutes Mass of Piece 2 After 20 Minutes Mass of Piece 2 After 30 Minutes Mass of Piece 2 After 40 Minutes Average of Mass of Piece 1 & 2 (g

Biological Warfare The history of Biological Warfare(BW), like most topics, can be divided into 3 parts: Early History, Modern History, and what we call "The Now." The early history starts as far back as you can think and continues up to the start of the 20th century. The first recorded use of biological agents is the Romans using dead animals to foul the enemies water supply. This had the dual effects of decreasing enemy numbers and lowering morale. The idea behind this kind of attack

The Prairie Dog Cynomys ludovicianus, known more commonly as the prairie dog, has more traditionally been viewed as the pariah of the prairie. However within the last year, attention has been drawn to these furry little rodents. They are extremely unpopular-¬Ěso much so that for decades the Federal Government has tried desperately to eliminate them. What the government doesn't know is that these creatures are vital to the survival and thriving of several species, and are in fact an asset t

Spinal Cord Regeneration Spinal cord injury can occur in many ways ranging from gunshot wounds, stab wounds and also bone displacement. These circumstances can lead to the death of neurons, and the demyelination of axons which causes some loss and damage to neurons. As Hudgins (1998) reports after a primary injury such as above, secondary injury occurs 30 minutes after and also that secondary injury is when the most critical damage occurs. This is when there is hemorrhaging in the gray

It is my opinion that Biometrics is an idea that should not become a reality due to the lack of privacy and control over our own lives that it would create. If the government were to carry out with the plan of Biometrics then the world would become more of a paranoid place then it already is. The general public would be able to be tracked at any moment and all the information about each individual would be accessible at the touch of a button. Our entire medical record

By Nick Carroll (I do not wish to remain anonymous; let my work benefit everyone!!) Note: I wrote this as a freshman. I do not know if it is any good. The information is accurate, though. Have Fun! Bats: Their Life and Special Senses Bats a

Rays are primarily slow-moving, bottom-dwelling fishes of the oceans, the rays are close relatives of the sharks. Both, including skates, belong to the same class of fish, Chondrichthyes-vertebrates whose skeleton is composed of cartilage, not true bone. The terms skate and ray are often used interchangeably. Both fishes belong to the taxonomic order Batoidei, but the skates are classified in the separate suborder Rajoidei. Skates and rays occur in nearly all the oceans of the world, from shallo

DIABETES Diabetes is a chronic illness but it is not fatal. A chronic illness is classified as an illness with no cure and has symptoms that persist over a long period of time. Diabetes is not a fatal illness, except in a few rare and severe cases. It is one of the most common chronic illnesses that a person can get. About 16 million Americans have diabetes and diabetes is most common in Hispanics and native Americans. About 5% (800,000) have type I which only occurs in young people. People

Klyment Tan March 2, 1998 Ozone in Medicine: Modern Magic Bullet or Fatal Deception? Ozone may be one of the most misunderstood medical achievements of this century. In this essay, facts will be filtered from politics to find the answer to this question: Ozone-the modern magic bullet or fatal deception? First of all, what is ozone? As defined in the Encarta Encyclopedia: Ozone (Greek ozein, "to smell"), allotropic form of oxygen having three atoms in each molecule, formula O3. It is a

For the last few decades, cloning was a fictitious idea that lay deep within the pages of some sci-fi novels. The very idea that cloning could one day become reality was thought to be a scientific impossibility by many experts but on one exhilarating day, what was thought to be "purely fiction" became reality. That fine day was February 22, 1997. A team from the Roslin Institute which was lead by Dr. Ian Wilmut changed the face of history forever by revealing what looked like an average shee

In the world's oceans, the surface currents move the oceans' surface water. This occurs in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. From a diagram of these surface currents, a number of conclusions can be made about the general patterns of the surface currents. One of these conclusions includes that they go clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counter-clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. The Northern Pacific circulation goes around in a clockwise rotation. The same thing happens in the Nort

--Characters: Theseus-leader of the basement roach colony Egeus-father of Hermia Lysander-in love with Hermia Demetrius-in love with Hermia, despises Helena Hermia-daughter of Egeus, in love with Lysander Helena-in love with Demetrius Hyppolotia-betrothed to Theseus Oberon-King of the Fairies Titania-Queen of the Fairies Puck/Robin Goodfellow-attendant to Oberon Jimmy Jo Bob-child of the house, has a playroom in the basement --Scene: An old house, in the basement and inside the wall

1/29/99 Biology 2 Period 2 Charles Darwin The "un"Scientific Theory of Evolution and the Manufactured Evidenced used Drunken Scientists to Support this Exaggerated Theory. Preface: Teaching the Theory of Evolution is like teaching the Bible in a public school. It's biased and unsupported and is banned by the constitution. I attended Catholic schools for four years. I was subsequently expelled. That experience has left me with the open-mindedness to proceed with t

Atavism According to WebsterOs dictionary atavism, from the Latin atavus meaning ancestor, is OA reoccurrence in an organism or in any of its parts a form typical of ancestry more remote then the parents usually due to genetic recombinations. A throwback.O This means that a person with an atavistic trait, or an atavistic deformity, exhibits a trait that was commonly found in our ancestors but that has been suppressed in the modern generation. Atavism reminds us that the genetic informati

Down Syndrome Down Syndrome is caused by a trisomy of the 21st chromosome, which means that there are three of chromosome 21 instead of 2. Symptoms of the disorder include: mental retardation, abnormal creases in the palm, a flat face, sparse and strait hair and short stature. People with Down syndrome are also at a high risk for cardiac anomalies, leukemia, cataracts and digestive blockage. Fifty percent of babies with the syndrome die before age one. Down syndrome can be detected by

Could an exploding star have been responsible for the death of the dinosaurs? This idea has become popular again as an explanation for the disappearance of the dinosaurs. An exploding star can blast material enormous distances into space. If this material reached Earth's atmosphere, changes may have occurred that were harmful to life. We call an exploding star a supernova. Nova is the Latin word for new, and in ancient times, when an exploding star was observed, people often thought a ne

This is my report about the discovery of the structure of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) as told by James Watson. Watson and another scientist named Francis Crick discovered the structure of this hereditary molecule. These two scientists discovered that DNA was much more important than originally thought by most of the scientists. Watson and Crick used the findings of other scientists with their pursuit to become famous before someone else found the answer. James Watson was an Ameri

For years scientists have been studying evolution and common decent. From Darwin to the modern day scientists humans have been trying to find out about how the world has evolved. Even with modern day technology scientists have trouble finding out how evolution works. Common descent can be proved in multiple ways. Scientists use fossils, embryology, comparative anatomy, biogeography, and biochemistry to give evidence that common descent has occurred. One of the most obvious ways to study e

Bicarbonate: A good buffer for blood Most carbon dioxide generated during metabolism is transported in the form of bicarbonate ions, which result from the dissociation of carbonic acid formed in the red blood cells from the chemical union of carbon dioxide and water. Hydrogen ions from the dissociation are bound to hemoglobin and other proteins, serving to buffer the blood. The entire process is reversed when blood enters the lungs, allowing free carbon dioxide to diffuse into the environment

Hepatitis A B C D E Hepatitis' target for each variation is the liver. Each virus differs greatly in its structure, mode of replication, course of disease, and mode of transmission. Of the hepatitis virus' most common are the A and B viruses. Each infects and damages the liver. Icteric symptoms are jaundice and release of liver enzymes, and is readily spread before even becoming symptomatic. Some generalizations are of these viruses are as following: HAV is caused by a picornavirus that

A red blood cell can start in the big left toe of a person and travel all around the body, ending up in the same place it started. During the entire transportation process, the Red Blood Cells transport oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues and carbon dioxode from the body tissues to the lungs. Red blood cells can be found in every part of the body because they are so widely spread out. Starting at the big left toe of a person, a deoxygenated red blood cell moves through many blood vessel

There are many different kinds of ferrets. There are three main ones: The black-footed, common, and domestic ferrets. There are many other breeds, formed by different kinds mating with each other. There is the polecat-ferret, black-common, and domestic-wild polecat breeds and many others. The gestation period of the common ferret is 42 days. This means that 42 days after the ferrets mate, a young will be born. The female ferret is called a gill. The male is a hob, and a young is called a

1 Introduction: The Human Genome Project is possibly the most important project in the world currently. Several companies and governments are involved with this project. The project has many goals but the main general goal is: "to construct a detailed genetic and physical map of the human Genome, to determine the complete nucleotide sequence of human DNA, to localize the estimated 50,000-100,000 genes within the human Genome, and to perform similar analyses on the Genomes of several other orga

Jane Goodall was born in London, England, on April 3,1934, and grew up in Bournemouth on the southern coast of England. On her second birthday, her father bought her a stuffed, life-like toy chimpanzee named Jubilee in honor of a baby chimp born at the London Zoo. Her father's friends warned him that such a gift would cause nightmares. However, Jane loved the toy, and to this day Jubilee sits on a chair in her home in England. Jane Goodall recalls her early interest in animals: "I have been i

A Month in The Life of A Gamete My name is RAMBO. I and my millions of brothers and sister gametes have been confined in our prison like holding cells called testes. Each day many more gametes are produced and held captive inside the testes which hang in a storage sac called the scrotum. WHAT'S HAPPENING IN HERE? Everything is moving. Back and forth this way, that way. Has everyone's wish finally come true?. Will I be among all other lucky gametes, to boldly go where millions of

The "thread of life", is deoxyribonucleic acid, otherwise known as DNA. It is the spiral shaped molecule found in the nucleus of cells. Scientists have known since 1952 that DNA is the basic substance of heredity. This was hypothesized, and later confirmed by James D. Watson and Francis Crick. They also know that it acts like a biological computer program over 3 billion bits long that "spells" out instructions for making the basic building blocks of life. DNA carries the bodies genetic c

Hemophilia Can you imagine being born not able to play sports? Or can you imagine what it would be like if you had to be injected with blood regularly just to stay alive? For more than 15,000 Americans, this way of life is a reality. Hemophilia is an inherited disease in which one or more blood-clotting proteins called antihemophilic globulin, or factor VIII are defective. This is what these people are suffering from. In fact, out of every 10,000 baby boys born, at least 1 of them suff

Abstract This is an experiment on how chemical stress effects cell membranes, specifically the tonoplast of Beta vulgaris taproot cells. This experiment involved the treatment of the aforesaid cells with different concentrations of an acetone solution, and testing the resulting solution for absorbance of light by betacyanine, using a spectrophotometer. It had been hypothesized that the higher the concentration of acetone in the solution, the higher the concentration of betacyanine in the re

The human body has been mapped and charted at different levels since before recorded history. The concept of the human genome project allows international scientists to take this mapping to an entirely new level and depth of complexity. Genes that scientists have mapped and broken down to fully understand, can then be manipulated and adjusted, enabling them to see changes that have taken place in the gene prior to it's 'dissection' or it's previous generations. Unfortunately, for those who are a

Biology Lab Respiration Objectives: 1. How a respirometer works in terms of the gas laws. 2. The general processes of metabolism in living organisms. 3. To calculate the rate of cell respiration from experimental data. 4. To relate gas production to respiration rate. 5. To test the effect of temperature on the rate of cell respiration in germinating seeds in a controlled experiment. Hypothesis: 1. The rate of aerobic respiration will be the fastest in room temperature water

Encephalitis, literally meaning inflammation of the brain, is a viral disease caused by many viruses that cause the brain to swell. It can also be caused by exposure to harmful chemicals as well as a complication of another disease. The strains of this pathogen that are present in North America include western encephalitis, eastern encephalitis, La Crosse, and St. Louis encephalitis. These viruses infect all ages and sexes equally, however the fatality rate is much higher in infants and

OUTLINE  What is a sexually transmitted disease? a) What is it? b) How can I get it?  Symptoms. a) Symptoms on women. b) Symptoms in men.  The dangers in sexually transmitted diseases. a) Dangers for men. b) Dangers for women.  Types of herpes. a) Most dangerous type. b) Least dangerous type.  Coping with the situation. a) What foods to eat. b) Vitamins you should take.  Conclusion a) Information

The most beautiful and well engrossed houses in the whole world belong to a huge variety of tropical fish. These houses are underwater vertebrates that have caught the attention of many human beings for a spectacular amount of time. Coral reefs are not only pretty, actually quite beautiful, and they present a great deal of human interest; but, they also render an enormous amount of shelter for an abundant number of different fish. Corals, one of the largest vertebrates in the world, al

INTRODUCTION There are many possible reasons why a child may grow slowly, including: hereditary factors (short parents), diseases affecting the kidneys; heart, lungs or intestines; hormone imbalances; severe stress or emotional deprivation; infections in the womb before birth; bone diseases; and genetic or chromosomal abnormalities. The Turner Syndrome (known as Ullrich-Turner Syndrome in Germany) is a congenital disease. A German doctor named Ullrich published his article in 1930. American d

Cryogenics is the science that deals with subfreezing temperatures and how they effect matter. There are several different fields of cryogenics, such as cryobiology. Cryobiologists study the effect of severe cold on living things, usually warm-blooded animals. The purpose of most of these studies is to find a way to better store cells and tissues for transplantation that is not to be done immediately. Every day hearts, livers, kidneys, and other such organs are shipped across the country to

Ribosomes play a very important role in our everyday life. If it wasn't for them your body wouldn't be able to function correctly. They make tears in your eyes, to keep your eyes moist. They grow hair for you, it also keeps an ample supply of saliva in your mouth, even though you are constantly swallowing. One of the most important thing it does is, it transfers protein in food, into your muscles to make muscle tissue. This process is called protein synthesis. During Protein Synthesidand on