Architecture Essays & Term Papers

243 total

Louis Kahn and The Salk Institute Standing alone against the endless blue sea, the Salk Institute by Louis I. Kahn is one of a kind. "Louis Kahn's Salk Institute for Biological Studies on the Pacific coast near La Jolla aspires within its own spirit to an order achieved through clarity, definition, and consistency of application"(Heyer 195). To many, this magnificent structure may seem out of place, but it works well with the surrounding environment because of the spatial continuity th

The First Presbyterian Church – An English Gothic Work of Architecture Pittsburgh is an architecturally rich city containing designs from the Classical Period of the early Greek architecture to the Gothic styles of France and England all the way to architectural styles of the twentieth century. One such example of this boundless architecture is the First Presbyterian Church located on Sixth Avenue and Wood Street in Oakland. The original church was built on this same lot in 1851

People often try to imitate a finished product if it has become popular. When this is done after several years it is considered a revival. Usually the artist or patron has a purpose such as modeling after a powerful culture or religious significance. They may slightly change or mix other styles to make the best of past and present. In Florence Italy there stands a baptistery. It resides west of the Florence Cathedral, which was modeled after the baptistery. The Cathedral began in 1296 b

The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art was the first museum on the west coast dedicated to 20th century art. It first opened in 1935 but underwent a major renovation and opened a new museum facility designed by renowned Swiss architect Mario Botta in January of 1995. Botta used a lot of historical influences, but the most prevalent is definitely the influence of Roman architecture. The two most obvious arguments for that are the fact that the building is a civicly themed building and the

Life in A Renaissance City the most varied forms of human development are found united in the history of Florence, which in this sense deserves the name of the first modern State in the world, (Burckhardt) Florence was the birthplace of the renaissance and the perfect example of a renaissance city. The city was founded during the Roman Empire but didn t become important until the time of the renaissance. They had guilds, the patronage system, spectacular architecture, and was the home t

The Purpose of Architecture is to shelter and enhance man s life on earth and to fulfill his belief in the nobility of his existence. Eero Saarinen Architecture establishes the atmosphere in which we create, live, and complete our existence. It can manipulate our emotions, our decisions, even our actions. With this in mind, architects must establish the correct ambiance to correlate with the buildings purpose. In other words its form must follow it function. Many factors are involved in

Architecturearchitecture When Walter Gropius resigned as the head of the Bauhaus in 1930, Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe (1886-1969) became its director, moving it to Berlin before political pressures forced it to close in 1933. In his architecture and furniture he made a clear and elegant statement of the International Style, so much so that his work had enormous influence on modern architecture. Taking his motto "less is more" and calling his architecture "skin and bones," his aesthetic was

Comparison of the Medievil and Renaissance Eras It is amazing how significantly various aspects of society can and will change over a prolonged period of time. Between the time periods of the Medieval era and the Renaissance, one can note numerous significant changes, mainly those pertaining to art and religion. In general, ideals and subjects during the Renaissance became more secular. In Medieval times, people seemed to focus mainly on the church, God, and the afterlife;

Islamic art and architecture points to the artistic accomplishments in the lands where Islam was the dominant religion and from the seventh century on. These lands were the Middle East, North Africa, Spain, Anatolia and the Balkans, and central and northern India. All the monuments and artistic objects, which may have been made with different materials and techniques, have a common artistic language. Islamic art was an art created for the setting of every day life. The most notable re

What is Portico? Portico is the only second-generation virtual assistant that has the ability to manage your messages, juggle your appointments, keep track of your contacts, and access information from the Internet. Just tell Portico what you want - in plain everyday words, or if you like, retreive the same information over the web. Portico works the way you do. No menus, no tricky commands. With Portico, you are only a phone call away from anything you need to stay in touch. If you know how

DAVID HATFIELD ART HISTORY I FALL 2000 The Romans gained much of their engineering skill from the Etruscans and drew on Etruscan and Asian models for the semicircular arch. From them, the Romans learned the use of the keystone arch, which enabled them to build extremely strong and durable structures. Many of these engineering and architectural projects are still standing. Some are still in use after two thousand years like this bridge in Spain. Early Roman architects were influen

Romanesque may first be sensed in new structural developments.. Sophisticated but unsatisfactory attempts to vault the great basilican naves safely, with elements of Roman, Byzantine, or Eastern origin, impelled progressive Romanesque engineers, from about 1090 onward, to invent a new type of ribbed groin-vaulted unit bay, using pointed arches to distribute thrust and improve the shape of the geometric surfaces. Fifty years of experimentation produced vaulting that was light, stron

Of the many types of entertainment and past times we have today, theatre is still one of the most loved. For this we have to thank the very earliest forms of ancient Greek and Roman theatre. These ancient time plays were staged often in honor of a god and have paved the way for theatre as we know today. A particular aspect that has had a remarkable effect on the way theatre has evolved is the architecture of ancient theatres. The architecture of ancient Greek and Roman theatres h

Architecture, the practice of building design and its resulting products, customary usage refers only to those designs and structures that are culturally significant. Today the architecture must satisfy its intended uses, must be technically sound, and must convey beautiful meaning. But the best buildings are often so well constructed that they outlast their original use. They then survive not only as beautiful objects, but as documents of history of cultures, achievements in architecture t

The greatest artist this country has ever produced seems to at last be coming into his own. America s other great artists our painters, sculptors, composers don t really rank with the tops of all time. They re not Rembrandt or Michelangelo or Beethoven. Wright alone has that standing. (Robert Campbell) One of America s most influential and imaginative architects was Frank Lloyd Wright. Throughout his 70 year career, Wright has not only designed nearly a thousand structures, but he has explor

Michelangelo was great in every aspect of art. "He was celebrated as the greatest artist ever because of his great work in the areas of sculpting, painting, drafter, architecture, and poetry". He has painted many great paintings and wrote many poems in his life. He is known for being a central figure in the history of art. Michelangelo is one of the greatest artists of all time because he was able to change his style to fit the period of time, painting, sculptures, architecture ability, and

Part 1: The Issue Through cognitive science, computer science, and psychology there has been an underlying question as to what qualifies for intelligent action. Allen Newell and Herbert A. Simon have proposed that a physical symbol system has the necessary and sufficient means for intelligent action. This is a view shared by many other notable figures from a variety of disciplines. What I would like to do in this essay is present an alternative means to attribute intelligent action. I

Architecturearchitecture When Walter Gropius resigned as the head of the Bauhaus in 1930, Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe (1886-1969) became its director, moving it to Berlin before political pressures forced it to close in 1933. In his architecture and furniture he made a clear and elegant statement of the International Style, so much so that his work had enormous influence on modern architecture. Taking his motto "less is more" and calling his architecture "skin and bones," hi

Michael Graves Michael Graves, born the summer or 1934 in Indianapolis, knew he wanted to be an artist by the age of six. Encouraged by his mother to seek a more practical career, Graves choose architecture. After studying at the University of Connecticut, he got his master's degree at Harvard University. After finishing school in 1959, he moved to New York City where he worked at the office of George Nelson. While working in New York, Graves received a fellowship to study at America

The Temple of Heaven is located in the southeast of Beijing. It was built in 1420 and expanded under the Qing emperors. The Temple of Heaven was founded in the first half of the 15th century. It is a respected complex of fine cult buildings set in gardens and is surrounded by historic pinewoods. The Temple of Heaven has become the symbol of Beijing. The temple represents the perfection of the Ming Dynasties architecture. The shape, colour and sound have symbolic importance. It is designed for

Art & Architecture Ancient Greek art can be divided into a number of different periods, roughly paralleling the eras in Greek history including: the Metal Age cultures (Cyclades, Minoan and Mycenaean); the Geometric Period; the Archaic Period; the Classical Period; the Hellenistic Period and the Byzantine period. These divisions are important; they represent major periods of artistic development and clearly distinguish various artistic movements within Greek historical cultural. T

People from all eras have communicated what they value through art, architecture and style. This statement is obvious. The first example I will discuss is that of the ancient Egyptian society. Their society was one that was based upon death. Everything in their lives revolved around preparing themselves for the afterlife. Included in that is their paintings; they contained the entire figure of the human, making sure their was no limb left unseen, for fear that it would not be their in the

The Chinese-American architect Ieoh Ming Pei (I.M) is known as one of the greatest architects of the Twentieth Century. His long, brilliant career was highlighted by several internationally famous structures. While many of Pei’s buildings were generally accepted by the public, some of them precipitated fair amounts of controversy. The most notable of these controversial structures is his Glass Pyramid at the entrance of the Louvre in Paris. For these reasons, I.M. Pei seems to be an

5th bce century greece The 5th century BCE was a period of great development in Ancient Greece, and specifically Athens. The development of so many cultural achievements within Athens and the Athenian Empire has led historians to deem this period a "Golden Age." It is true that this period had many achievements, but in light of the Athenians treatment of women, metics, and slaves it is a question whether or not the period can truly be called "Golden." During the 5th century some amazing achi

Monticello "I am as happy nowhere else and in no other society, and all my wishes end, where I hope my days will end, at Monticello," wrote Thomas Jefferson the great architect of his home, Monticello. His home of 54 years was named Monticello which means "little mountain" in Italian. Many still question the reasoning for the name "Monticello." The only reasoning that was come up with was that Jefferson wanted to build his home on his mountain located in the Blue Ridge Mountains of V

The definition of a truss is any of various structural frames based on the geometric rigidity of the triangle and composed of straight members subject only to longitudinal compression, tension, or both: functions as a beam or cantilever to support bridges, roofs, etc. Trusses are the most commonly used structural device used in architecture today. Trusses are used in almost every thing they are in your attic, barns, buildings, and bridges. A truss is used in architecture and engineeri

The Middle Ages was a period between 476 and 1300 in which there was great change and there was evidence of the first forms of modern civilization. European society gradually transformed from a Europe that was in anarchy during the Dark Ages to several national states. There were several signs of the roots of modern civilization forming. The power that once lay solely upon kings was no longer completely theirs but had to be shared with local rulers. European society began to look back to c

“How was the Italian Renaissance an age in which life was a work of art?” The Renaissance was an important time. It was a time when new ideas were formed, worldly places became more important, and great people became known. All of which paved the way to future inventions, philosophies, and life as we know it. During the Renaissance, new possibilities were explored. One of which was a group of people who called themselves Humanists. Humanism was a movement based on the literat

Cathedrals of the 12th CenturyFor nearly four hundred years Gothic style dominated the architecture of Western Europe.It originated in northern France in the twelfth century, and spread rapidly across England and theContinent, invading the old Viking empire of Scandinavia. It confronted the Byzantine provincesof Central Europe and even made appearances in the near East and the Americas. Gothicarchitects designed town halls, royal palaces, courthouses, and hospitals. They fortified citi

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Gothic Architecture The church in the Middle Ages was a place that all people, regardless of class, could belong to. As a source of unity, its influence on art and architecture was great during this time. As society drew away from the feudal system of the Romanesque period, a new spirit of human individualism began to take hold; alas, the birth of Gothic. Here, the Church became a place where humanity became more acceptable, alas becoming the ideal place to visual such new ideals. The beauty

Born Charles Edouard Jeaneret in the Swiss town of la Chaux-des-Fonds on October 6th, 1887. He was an artist at first, then he took his eventual name of Le Corbusier in 1920 when he knew his life would be that of architecture rather than strictly art. Though he was never schooled officially, he was influenced by many, this first of which was Auguste Perret, whom taught him about the use of reinforced concrete. Peter Behrens whom he worked with in 1910 also influenced Corbusier. His bi

An architect designs and sometimes supervises the construction of buildings. Anything from tunnels that run far beneath the ground, to skyscrapers that tower above it, architects have always had a hand in building these great structures. Yes, you too can be an architect! But how, you ask? Just read on, and you will find out! Architects have designed the greatest buildings in history, from the stoic World Trade Center in New York, to the graceful and natural Falling Waters house in Pennsyl

2/12/99 Islamic Art and Architecture; Influence and Effects During the reign of the Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughal rulers, architecture and art took on more meaning than it had in the past. The types of architecture and manuscript writing have had both symbolic significance and influence on the people of these empires. The architecture can be said to have had the greatest impact on the presence of power and devotion to Islamic arts of all of the empires, while manuscripts were held pr

“Louie Kahn said,” Even a brick wants to be something… a brick wants to be, something… it inspires. Even a common ordinary brick wants to be something more than it is… and that is what we must be (“Indecent Proposal”) The Expand program discus’s that mathematics, coordination, idea generation, implementation planning, speaking, product inspection, active listening, and visioning are all skills a person must have to be a successful architect (“Architect”). Being an


19th Century Architecture 19th Century architecture is a wide subject only because there were so many beautiful and magnificent buildings built. The Houses of Parliament were built between 1840 to 1865. It was built by Sir Charles Barry in a Gothic Revival style. The buildings cover an area of more than 8 acres and contain 1100 apartments, 100 staircases, and 11 courts. The exterior, in it’s Revived Gothic style, s impressive with its three large towers: Victoria Tower spanning

Louis Sullivan was without a doubt one of the most influential figures in American architecture. He can be credited with lying the foundation of today’s modern skyscrapers. In addition, he has produced some of the most magnificent ornaments seen in 19th and 20th century, which adorned his buildings. On September 3, 1856, Louis Henri Sullivan was born in Boston, Massachusetts. His came from an Irish father and a French mother. Louis led a sheltered childhood as result of the civil

Post Modern Design If one were to walk around and casually ask five people what post modernism was they would probably get five different answers or none at all. It is one of those indefinable academic terms that applies to many different fields of study. Most people seem to understand what it means individually but few agree collectively. To make matters even more complicated, it is often used in discussions about deconstruction. "To some Post Modernism is an excuse to pile together o

Frank Lloyd Wright Frank Lloyd Wright, in my mind, is the greatest architect I ve ever seen. He had a big fetish with building his houses encompassed with nature and that really interested me. Frank Lloyd Wright is widely regarded as one of the most influential figures in modern Western architecture. His radically innovative designs, utilizing a building based on nature. Said by Wright as organic architecture. He was born in Richland Center, Wisconsin, June 8, 1867 and died on April 9,

Roman Art and Architecture Roman art and architecture was the art and architecture of Rome and its empire, which in its golden era extended from the British Isles to the Caspian Sea ("Roman" Encarta 96). The earliest Roman art and architecture is generally associated with the overthrow of the Etruscan kings and the establishment of the Republic in 509 BC("Roman"). The end of Roman art and architecture and the beginning of medieval art is usually said to occur with the conversion of the em

Greek Architecture Architecture, the practice of building design and its resulting products; customary usage refers only to those designs and structures that are culturally significant. Architecture is to building as literature is to the printed word. Vitruvius, a 1st-century BC Roman, wrote encyclopedically about architecture, and the English poet Sir Henry Wotton was quoting him in his charmingly phrased dictum: Well building hath three conditions: Commoditie, Firmenes, and Delight. Mo

Resource Name: Il Gesu Location: Rome, Italy Architect: Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola; born 1507, died 1573. His career illustrates the rigidity of Mannerist art in the later half of 16th century. His design of Il Gesu meant that Jesuit missionaries carried copies of his design all over the world. His first major work was the villa (Rome) built for Pope Julius III, but Il Gesu was the most influential, although considered architecturally less adventurous. Vignola published his own tr

Sculpture and painting of the Republican period, initially reflected Etruscan influences. As the empire expanded, exposure to other cultures and the art of Greece reflected a more eclectic style. The building of religious buildings and palaces was of importance, but also they began to concentrate on the needs of the whole community, of the ordinary people, for which they developed new building forms, new structural principles and new building materials. The most important development in thi

Roman Influence on Architecture The world of architecture has been greatly influenced and affected by Roman architectural design and development. Their innovative designs and influential developments developed centuries ago have provided a basis for architectural masterpieces found across the planet and, what's more, have remained relevant into the 21st Century. While the Romans borrowed many architectural designs from the Greeks and Etruscans, the additions that they did make to the

Cathedrals The term itself, "Gothic," derives from a term given to the style by Renaissance scholar, Giorgi Vasari, who incorrectly attributed the form to the Goths, Germanic invaders who helped lead to the downfall of the Holy Roman Empire and its classic ideals. In it's own time; Gothic architecture was referred to as "modern" or "French" architecture. The basic concepts and standards of Gothic form are colored, darkened and diffused light. A vertical rush to the sky, a synthesis of natural

Throughout history, Classical ideals of the ancient Greeks and Romans have been prevalent in all facets of art. In architecture this is especially true. A few of the Classical ideals employed in architecture are colonnaded porticoes, domed centers and symmetrical designs. Architects such as Andrea di Pietro, Christopher Wren and Thomas Jefferson used these Classical design elements in their respective works. These highly regarded individuals were architects of the Mannerist, Baroque and

Italian architecture in the middle agesIn the Fifteenth century, the Italian historian Flavio Biondo regarded the sack of Rome bythe Visogoths as the end of ancient civilization. He also believed that this marked the beginningof the Middle Ages (Erickson 72). Within the thousand years of the Middle Ages, historianshave recognized subperiods. These subperiods include the Early Middle Ages (900 to 1000), theHigh Middle Ages (1000 to 1300), and the Later Middle Ages (the 14th and 15

Difference Between Italian And French Baroque Architecture Baroque is the name given to the art of the 17th century. But the baroque style, like all other styles in the history of art, began gradually. It started in the latter part of the 16th century and continued to be used well into the 18th century. Baroque can be defied as the florid, ornate style characterizing fine arts in Europe from the middle 16th to middle 18th centuries. The main characteristic of the baroque architect

Louis Sullivan was without a doubt one of the most influential figures in American architecture. He can be credited with lying the foundation of today s modern skyscrapers. In addition, he has produced some of the most magnificent ornaments seen in 19th and 20th century, which adorned his buildings. On September 3, 1856, the future architect was born Louis Henri Sullivan in Boston, Massachusetts. His background was paternally Irish and maternally French. Louis led a sheltered childhood as