Archaeology Essays & Term Papers

120 total

Barbara Stanfield American Literature Argumentative Paper Contradictions in Thomas Paine’s The Age of Reason Thomas Paine wrote The Age of Reason in 1784. In it he included his views on the religions known throughout the world. For this, he was ridiculed and despised by many in society. Thomas Paine once said that a sermon he heard at the age of eight impressed him with the cruelty inherent in Christianity and made him a rebel forever. It is my opinion that, because of this, he

Zachariah Hennessey Journal Assignment- The Waste Land “ Poetry is not a turning loose of emotion, but an escape from emotion; it is not the expression of personality, but an escape from personality. But, of course, only those who have personality and emotions know what it means to want to escape from these things.” – Eliot, Tradition and the Individual Talent Eliot believed poetry should be a lot like archaeology, the process itself like a carefully excavated dig. His relic

In the January/February issue of Archaeology magazine, the article "Early Homo erectus Tools in China" holds additional, yet questionable information about the foundations of the genus Homo. After recent findings of stone tools and animal bones at Renzidong (Renzi Cave) in Anhui Province, eastern China, Chinese scientists have concluded that Homo erectus may have been established there 400,000 years earlier than formerly believed, almost 2.25 million years ago. Besides this site bei

Her life can be described as that of a suffering female, a childless woman, and a mistreated wife. During the course of her life she painted many portraits reflecting her inner emotions. Many people said that she lived dying. Without a doubt, Frida Kahlo (1907-1954) was one of the most influential artists of Mexico in the middle twentieth century. Using self-portraiture to announce herself and explore the tangled realm of her feelings, Kahlo's unworldly art teaches much about the nature of

One of the most fascinating tools aiding in the discovery of Ancient Egyptian society was the tomb of King Tutankhamen. Discovered in the early twentieth century, King Tutankhamen's tomb provided the world with an intake of Egyptian lifestyles. By observing and analyzing the intact, pictorial artifacts, archaeologists were able to form conclusions of what the ancient world was like. The artifacts within the tomb not only told of the lifestyles of the Ancient Egyptians, but also revealed the ro

The ancient Roman city of Pompeii was buried by a volcano in 79 AD. That should be enough to destroy any town, but the city's buildings were in fact protected by this coating of ash, and although it would never be inhabited again, it now bears witness to an incredible period of history. For thousands of years, the city lay virtually undisturbed, and protected from the elements and erosion. Excavations carried out over the last centuries have allowed the city to be once again buzzing wit

Comparison between The Vishnu Temple of Srirangam and The Royal Abbey of St. Denis People are in many respects unique animals: they can create culture as no other animal can. As an aspect of this culture, they construct images for worship and admiration as well as icons for pleasure and practice. The former represents religion, and the latter art. In the various expressions of religion such as rituals, ceremonials, shrines, magical cults and worship, art is necessarily included. Both the te

The Dead Sea Scrolls: The Complete Story On the western shore of the Dead Sea, about 8 miles south from Jericho, lies a complex of mines known as Khirbet Qumran. It occupies one of the lowest parts of the earth, on the fringe of the hot dried waste wilderness of the Judaea. Members of an ancient Jewish community, the Essenes, hurried out one day and in secrecy climbed the nearby cliffs in order to hide away their precious scrolls in 11 caves, now called The Dead Sea Scrolls. The Dead Se

Around 2680 BC, a precedence was set for future Egyptian architecture, as well as over all architectural design. Only a short distance to the south of the previous burial mastabas of the first and second Egyptian dynasties, the Mortuary Complex of King Zoser was constructed. Lying atop a stretch of high ground at Saqqara overlooking the city of Memphis, this complex is believed to be the first of its time to utilize new techniques in Egyptian construction, and was by far the largest and

The Emergence of the Human Mind Introduction Discussing the mind will inevitably lead to a messy and perplexing conversation and conclude with no definitive answer. This paper cannot possibly expect to settle the complex questions that arise from the conversation of the mind. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss Steven Mithen s ideas on the evolution of the human mind with the supplementation of other theories used to critique his theory. Because the term mind is such a foggy one

Ernst Cassirer (1874--1945) was a Jewish German intellectual historian and philosopher, the originator of the ``philosophy of symbolic forms.'' After a distinguished teaching career in Germany, he fled the Nazis, first to Oxford, then Goteborg, then finally Yale, which gives an annual series of lectures in philosophy in his honor; he died as a visiting professor at Columbia. Having read and admired his historical works, particularly The Philosophy of the Enlightenment, I was curious abo

Controversy of the Exile After reading 2 Kings 25 and the two articles, the main source of contrast between these two sourcs is the amount of detail they go into on different aspects of the Exile. The Biblical reading mentions King Nebuchadnezzar and his capture of King Zedekiah, the efforts of General Nebuzaradan and his detailed destruction and pillaging of Jerusalem and the Temple, the capturing and execution of Judah s chief officers and priests, Judah s revolt against Gedaliah and fleei

Introduction: Cultural Anthropology is a term that is in everyday lives and topics. When one thinks of anthropology they think of the study of old remnants commonly referred to as archaeology. This, however, is not the only form of anthropology. There are four types of anthropology and they are archaeology, biological anthropology, cultural anthropology, and linguistic anthropology. However, Cultural anthropologists are every where and study people of all walks of life. One can find a t

Hellenism on the Silk Road Along the Silk Road, merchants traded desirable wares from all over Asia and the Mediterranean. Gold, porcelain, spices, jewelry, textiles, and about anything else material that any civilization along this vast network of trade routes could create. Along with material concerns, however, came the much more lasting and intriguing effect of cultural exchange; religions, ideas, food, architectural developments, philosophy, and art all moved along the routes with these t

Palace of King Minos at Knossos Matt Katkocin Prof. Castora History of the Ancient World 5 / 6 / 99 Works Cited Coltrell, Leonard. 1958. The Bull of Minos. New York, NY. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Encyclopedia Americana. 1995. Knossos, pg. 514. Danbury, CT. Grolier Inc. New Encyclopedia Britanica. 1997. Knossos, pg. 514. Chicago, IL. Encyclopedia Britanica Inc.. Palmer, Leonard R. 1969. A New Guide to the Palace of Knossos. New York, NY. Frederick A. Prayer, Publishers.

"Fragment Of a Wall Relief" As I entered the upper Egyptian gallery at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology I noticed a women giving a lecture to a small group concerning some of the monuments in the gallery. Lucky enough, I got a chance to catch the end of her lecture, and coincidentally it was about this piece entitled "Fragment of a Wall Relief." This particular piece is from the Amarna period or 18th dynasty of ancient Egypt, dating from about 1367-

Bangladesh, in full, is The People's Republic of Bangladesh. It is the republic of southern Asia, in the northeastern portion of the Indian subcontinent, bordered on the west, north, and east by India, on the southeast by Burma, and on the south by the Bay of Bengal. The area of the country is 55,598 square miles. The capital and largest city of Bangladesh is Dhaka. Geographically, historically, and culturally, Bangladesh forms the larger and more populous part of Bengal, the remainder of w

In this paper I am going to discuss how anthropology is a science. I am also going to explain how Jane Goodall is a scientist with her works with chimpanzees, and how that is known as primatology. I will also look at the order primates in correspondence with Jane Goodall’s book on primates, specifically the chimpanzee. Anthropology is a science; it has four aspects in which you can study. Anthropology takes a look at humankind and with its subdiciplines you can break down individu

Atlantis: The Lost ContinentRel/304Dr. ClementsByKelly Soares AbstractAtlantis, a mystery for thousands of years is synonyms with UFO s, Bigfoot, and Stonehedge. It has boggled the minds of many atlantologists. I believe the question isn t did it exist, but where? I intend to review many of the ideas that have been suggested for the existence and location. The ideology ranges from Plato who lived some two thousands five hundred years ago to writers who have published t

Review Buckland, P.C., Amorosi, T., Barlow, L.K., Dugmore, A.J., Mayewski, P.A., McGovern, T.H., Ogilvie, A.E.J., Sadler, J.P., Skidmore, P. Bioarchaeological and Climatological Evidence for the Fate of Norse Farmers in Medieval Greenland. Antiquity 70.267 (1996): 88-96. Norse colonization of Greenland, which began in c. AD 985, disappeared within five hundred years. The authors of this study focus on one of the two Norse colonies in Greenland; the Western Settlement. This

Anthropology- the study of humankind everywhere, through time, seeks to produce reliable knowledge about people and their behavior, both about what makes them different and what they have in common. What They Do- Physical anth- study humans as biological organisms, tracing there evolutionary development of the human animal and looking at biological variations within the species, past and present (human evol, Primates, Human diversity. Cultural Anth- is concerned with human cultures, o

In the Native community, we sort of feel the same way about eco-tourism. We walk that fine line of navigating between the ideals of development (which would lead one to advocate rural tourism), and the ideals of cultural tradition and integrity (which might lead one to reject rural tourism). We share this ambivalence, but recognize that these two conflicting ideals are connected with the ongoing dynamics of cultures and communities with moral, political, economic and ecological forces h

Troublesome Questions In 1830 Mr. Rankin tied a rope around a projection out of a rock face in order to lower himself into Wellington Cave (Horton, 1980). The projection turned out to be the bone of a giant extinct marsupial. It was to be the first discovery of a great range of giant marsupials. Were these animals extinct?? Horton (1980), describes how Leichhart believed that on his journeys to northern Australia he would find Diprotodon still roaming over the land. We now know that

Place yourself in an ancient world. On September 28th, 2000 my boyfriend and myself attended the Metropolitan Museum of Art located in New York City, to visit an archeological exhibit on Egyptian Art. Located in the first floor off 83rd street and Fifth Avenue, the exhibit consists of thirty-two galleries each illustrating a time period in Egyptian history. It is difficult to elucidate the colossal impact this exhibit delineates. But given the chance in this essay, I will try to depic

Human Evolution and the Fossil RecordScientists continue to debate the history of man. It is generally agreed upon by the scientific community, however, that humans evolved from lesser beings, and this essay will function to provide evidence to support this claim. Several points will be outlined, including the general physical changes that occurred between several key species on the phylogeny of man, and a discussion of dating methods used to pinpoint the age of the fossils. This essay w

The Indus civilization, an ancient civilization in South Asia, existed from about 2700 to 1750 BC. It is sometimes referred to as the Harappan civilization, named for the site of Harappa, one of its major centers. Geographically one of the most extensive early civilizations of the Old World, it stretched from north of the Hindu Kush down the entire length of the Indus and beyond into peninsular India; in the west, outposts that extended almost to the present-day Iranian-Pakistani border have b

King Solomon ruled all of Israel in an outstanding way from 977 to 937 BCE (12). Despite his wealth and power, Solomon is known to history for his wisdom and as the builder of the Temple of Jerusalem. He has been credited with authoring all or parts of three books of the Bible (Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Solomon). King Solomon was the ruler of ancient Israel who reigned from 961-922 BC (8). He is the son of David and Bathsheba. Solomon succeeded his father as king and his territor

Edward James Hughes is one of the most outstanding living British poets. In 1984 he was awarded the title of the nation's Poet Laureate. He came into prominence in the late fifties and early sixties, having earned a reputation of a prolific, original and skilful poet, which he maintained to the present day. Ted Hughes was born in 1930 in Yorkshire into a family of a carpenter. After graduating from Grammar School he went up to Cambridge to study English, but later changed to Archaeology

Greek law evolved as a necessary means by which to regulate society's behavior. What had up until then been left up to the whims of each individual to handle on his or her own was now a product of fair and sensible legal procedure. It can be argued that there was a great need for such a show of order in that there existed little or no conformity when it came to retribution. As Greek law continued to be established, it also became a fundamental part of other areas of life, branching out

Wright 1 Meeting Madagascar Introduction of Country Larger than California and Oregon combined, Madagascar is the world's fourth largest island, after Greenland, New Guinea and Borneo. Located 250 miles off the south-east coast of Africa, the island extends 1,000 miles in length and 360 miles at its largest width. The island can be divided into three main parts: the East Coast, a narrow coastal strip abutting the steep slopes of the North-South mountain range, home of the rain forest

In Anthropology a false notion occurs in that hunters and gatherers are mobile and agriculturalists are sedentary. There are many examples of Native North American tribes and cultures that exhibit mobile agriculturalism, opposing early archaeological preconcieved notions of a unilineal settlement continuum from mobile to sedentary. The model from mobile hunting and gathering to sedentary agriculture should be thought of as a universal, variable and mutil-dimensional phenomenon. The Am

Imagination is involved in everything. It is impossible for the human race to do anything without its imagination. It molds and shapes our society, our science and our art. It makes things we dream about into real things. Imagination pushes the human mind to create, to invent and to aspire to new heights. It revolves around everything. Music could not be created without imagination. You can trace everything back to imagination. A person sitting on top of a hill sees the lands

HOW DID LIFE REALLY BEGIN? INTRODUCTION Evolution. Is it a fact or fiction? I thought that Evolution, was just a theory, but I was wrong. I believe that Darwin’s theory has had a great impact on the world today. It has caused many debates between religious authorities and those from the scientific community. This theory had prompted individuals to think about the Origin of the Universe, Earth, and how did life really begin. However, what distinguishes Charles Darwin from the o

Confucianism, major system of thought in China, developed from the teachings of Confucius and his disciples, and concerned with the principles of good conduct, practical wisdom, and proper social relationships. Confucianism has influenced the Chinese attitude toward life, set the patterns of living and standards of social value, and provided the background for Chinese political theories and institutions. It has spread from China to Korea, Japan, and Vietnam and has aroused interest among Weste

Implications of Neanderthal-Homo Sapiens Hybrid from the Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal) In a recent excavation at Abrigo do Lagar Velho in Portugal, Duarte et al (1999) unearthed what was later to be recognized as early human skeletal remains which pointed to interbreeding between Neanderthal and Modern Humans during the mid - upper Palaeolithic transition. The morphology of the remains, belonging to a child of approximately 3-4 years old, indicates a Neanderthal typology in post-cranial fea

Implications of Neanderthal-Homo Sapiens Hybrid from the Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal) In a recent excavation at Abrigo do Lagar Velho in Portugal, Duarte et al (1999) unearthed what was later to be recognized as early human skeletal remains which pointed to interbreeding between Neanderthal and Modern Humans during the mid - upper Palaeolithic transition. The morphology of the remains, belonging to a child of approximately 3-4 years old, indicates a Neanderthal typology in post-c

By the ninth century people all over were telling the fabulous tales and romances about Arthur and his kingdom. The common people heard them sung by bards, while in the court poets wrote different versions. In each retelling the speaker would select certain details for emphasis and introduce new elements, so that the story could be adapted to the particular time and audience. Although most historians believe that there actually did exist an Arthur, they differ on how major his role was on infl

By the ninth century people all over were telling the fabulous tales and romances about Arthur and his kingdom. The common people heard them sung by bards, while in the court poets wrote different versions. In each retelling the speaker would select certain details for emphasis and introduce new elements, so that the story could be adapted to the particular time and audience. Although most historians believe that there actually did exist an Arthur, they differ on how major his role w

Introduction During the second session of the summer 2000 WBRCP we gathered data for Remote Sensing research. Our objective is to locate cave sites and determine the usefulness of various remote sensing platforms for this purpose. Similar research has proven successful for locating surface sites in the Maya area, but this technology has not yet been applied for cave location. Finding cave sites is particularly important to Maya archaeology because they often contain archaeological ma

The Acts of the Apostles By Tim Emery The Acts of the Apostles provides us with a tome of knowledge on a lot of aspects of the second and third quarter of the first century AD. But most importantly it provides us with a wealth of insight into life and society in the cities of the Roman Empire. Without the Acts of the Apostles there would have been very little correlative evidence on this. For knowledge of the cities and people that appear in it, we have to rely otherwise on the collection of

Understanding mummy preservation is an important part of physical anthropology. Concentration is placed on areas of osteology including skeletal analysis and structure. Skin, hair, and tissue are commonly examined to comprehend exterior composition. Physical anthropologists can acquire knowledge of past peoples, which aids in the study of today’s peoples. New technologies are providing scientists with the key to unlocking new doors. There are many contributing factors that surround

Stonehenge Stonehenge and its purpose remains an enigma even now, more than 4,000 years after it was first begun. It could have been a temple, an astronomical calendar, or guide to the heavens. Despite the fact that we don't know its purpose for certain, Stonehenge acts as a prehistoric timepiece, allowing us to theorize what it would have been like during the Neolithic Period, and who could have built this megalithic wonder. Construction took place in three phases, over 25 generations. Mos

Louis Leakey Discovering the Secrets of Humankind's Past Louis Leakey was born to be an archaeologist, for his childhood in Africa truly prepared him for the field life he would later lead. The son of missionaries Harry and Mary Leakey, Louis grew up in Kenya near Nairobi, among the Kikuyu African tribe who the elder Leakeys were trying to convert. Despite intervening periods in which the Leakeys moved back to England, Louis grew up practically as a Kikuyu tribe member, and at the age of ele

In Ancient Egypt, women were very important, and it’s quite easy for one to say that the roles of women, and men for that matter, have changed since those times. Egyptian women enjoyed more rights and privileges than males, even though Egypt was typically male-dominant. Egyptian women were even accustomed to more dispensation than modern day women. Women in those times, especially in such places, were far off from being literate. Upper class women were the most educated of the

Without the Nile, the great Egyptian back in the Ancient Times would have been nothing, except for an empire filled with sand. But the gods were with Egypt that time, and gave Egypt the only hope of surviving The Nile River. The Nile is the longest river on Earth. But now Egypt has started developing and changing, let alone mention that it is worldwide known. In Egypt, people have both adapted to their environment and changed their environment. One thing the Egyptians haven't changed

The Great Pyramids of Egypt The Pyramids of Egypt were built from 2700-2500 BC. It’s located in Giza, Egypt, on the West Bank of the Nile River. The pyramids are the oldest and the only one surviving of all the ancient wonders. Its believed to have taken 100,000 slave laborers and about 20 years to build the massive pyramid using about 2.3 million blocks of stone. Each block averaging 2 ½ tons of weight. Of the ten pyramids the first three are held in the highest regard. The first a

Ancient Egypt still holds some of the greatest mysteries of the world even though it has been studied for hundreds of years. Many of this great nation s secrets will probably never be exposed. It's monuments such as the Sphinx and the pyramids have become both a symbol of mystery and a link to the past. One of our clues to the vision of ancient Egypt was the Palette of King Narmer. One of the major images on the Palette of King Narmer is that of the Cow headed Goddess Hathor. The cow is t

Ancient Egypt was even ancient to the ancient Egyptians themselves. It was as ancient to the ancient Greeks as the ancient Greeks are to us. 5,000 years separated us from the beginning of ancient Egypt. The history of Egypt begins with the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt into one United Kingdom. The first ruler under this new system was Menes. Thirty other dynasties would follow. To further unify Upper and Lower Egypt Menes founded a capital city where the two met: at the apex of t

The Role of Women in Ancient Egypt From the time of the Old Kingdom to the time of the New Kingdom, Ancient Egypt was a society dominated by men. Much of the history of Egypt is expressed through the perspective of Egyptian males. This leaves the perspective of the other half of the Egyptian population, females, unexplored. When women of Ancient Egypt are discussed it is often just the women of power or royalty who receive attention. This leaves many people unaware of the role of the

Egypt: The Gift of the Nile The Nile, is the longest river in the world, and is located in northeastern Africa. Its principal source is Lake Victoria, in east central Africa. The Nile flows north through Uganda, Sudan, and Egypt to the Mediterranean Sea, with a total distance of 5584 km. From its remotest headstream in Burundi, the river is 6671 km long. The river basin covers an area of more than 3,349,000 sq km. Not only is the Nile considered a wonder by Herodotus, but by people all over t