Evolution of Man
This report will cover the evolution of man. This report will give the theory and the facts to back it up. Please keep an open mind while reading the following.
The most ancient man was about the same as we are, judging from their thighbones. These bones can not really be distinguished from our own. There used to be serious discussion on whether or not Java Man was really erect. Now that we know about australopithecines, we should be more than surprised if he were anything else. His femur shows that walked upright and his head show it to (Howels pg. 159).
Simple mass-production methods enabled Homo Sapiens Sapiens to make good tools more effectively. A number of blades were cut from a prepared core of a flint. By means of hammering a chisel of bone, antler, or wood, two channels were gouged from the flint. Thus creating a pointed ridge. The chisel was then hammered downward, splitting off a sharp sliver and in the process create to more ridges (Sutton pg. 65).
During the period from 1859 to the end of the 19th century, the Darwin Theory of evolution was gradually accepted and strengthened even though there were those who, seeing it in conflict with revealed religion could not accept it. For a good part of the world of science, however, it provided a plausible direction for thought about, and exploration of, the living world and rational for viewing the enormous diversity of the life as well as the changing paleontology, classification and physiology contributed to the growing wave of acceptance, and biology (Swanson pg. 133).
In August of 1984 Andy Mould was gathering peat moss in northern England. He saw a foot sticking out of the ground. He made a call and a ton of scientist showed up. This is a man from ancient time that was give to the gods in a ritual. He still had the food in his stomach. He died with a smile on his face even though they living daylights out of him. This was named the Bog Man. This was the first time a person has been found like this. In 1974 there was a body found in Ireland. This guy was hunting and still had all his weapons with him. This guy was called the IceMan. Archaeologists have found remains and artifacts of Paleolithic people in many parts of the world including East Africa, China, Southeast Asia, Europe, the Middle East and the Americans (Beers pg. 9-10).
It used to be argued that Neanderthals evolved into Cro-Magnon's within Europe. That possibility now seems very unlikely. The last Neanderthal skeletons from somewhat after forty thousand years ago were still "full blown" Neanderthals, while the firs Cro-Magnon's appearing in Europe at the same time were already fully modern. The front part of the Neanderthals brain, as judged by endocasts, was not as expanded as ours (Diamond pg. 51).
The Paleolithic, or Old Stone Age, is the earliest and longest stage of human culture development, lasting from about 2 1/2 million years ago to 10,000 years ago. These concepts of a Paleolithic period were proposed in 1865. All the people in the Paleolithic period were nomads. This meant that followed herds of animals like the Wooly Mammoth. They did not have a permanent home (Beers pg. 10).
There were a lot of time periods in the ancient time. They go way back, almost 65 million years ago. The first time period was Mesozoic Era. This was 65 million years ago. The next was Cenozoic Era, which was 23 million. This was divided into two periods the Neogene which was 23 million years ago. The most recent is the Quaternary period which man was most evolved in. In the Neogene there were only three things in it that was evolved in the evolution of man. The first was New World Monkeys about 40 million years ago. Then the chimp was about 25 million years ago. The last was the Old World Monkeys about 25 million. In the Quaternary had the most evolution in it. There are 18 steps in this period. The first was the Gibbon about 14 million years ago. Second was the Gorilla about 4 million years ago. Third was the Orangutan about 14 million years ago. Fourth was Australopithecus Atarensis about 4 million years ago. Fifth was A. Africanus about 3 1/2 million years ago. Sixth was A. Boisei 2.75 million ago. Seventh was the A. Robustus about 2 1/2 million years ago. Ninth was African Homo Habilis about 1 1/2 million years ago. Tenth was Chinese Homo Erectus about 80,000 years ago. The 11th was Southeast Asian Homo Erectus about 800,000 years ago. The 12th was Chinese Archaic Hominids about 500,000 years ago. The 13th was African Archaic Hominids with Archaic features about 350,000 years ago. The 15th was Javanese Archaic Hominids (Java Man) about 300,000 years ago. The 16th was Homo Sapiens (Neanderthal) about 100,000 years ago. The last was Homo Sapiens Sapiens about 99,000; this is us (Sutton pg. 89).
Why the change? One word, adaptation. Why was their adaptation? So they could survive and because of the changing weather.
Schwartz, Jeffery H., What the Bones Tell Us, Henery Holr and
Grolier Encyclopedia, CD Rom. 1992
Diamond, Jared, The Third Chimpanze, Harper Collins, 1992
Sutton, Kelso F. , Time Frame, Time Life, 1990
Johanson, Donald, Ancestors, Nova, 1994
Howells, William, Man Kind in the Making, Doubleday,1967
Beers, Burton, World History, Patterns of Civilization, Prentice Hall, 1991
Swanson, Carl, The Natural History of Man, Prentice Hall 1973