Eukaryotic Organelles Term Paper

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Essay of Eukaryotic Organelles 10/1/96

The mitochondria has an eggshape structure. The mitochondria consists of

an inner and outer membrane. The outer membrane is what shapes the

organelle to its egglike shape. The inner membrane which folds inward

makes a set of "shelves" or cristae that allow the reactions of the

mitochondria to take place. The more the mitochondria makes these reactions

the more the inner membrane folds. This happens because the mitochondria

now has more surface area connecting it to its surroundings. The processes

that the mitochondria make are to break down the high energy organic

molecules into smaller more useful packages.

The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of tubes and channels that

transport and with the help of ribosomes produce proteins. The rough

endoplasmic reticulum contains ribosomes which are not present in the

smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The rough endoplasmic reticulum allows the

cell to produce proteins. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is used in the

detoxification processes in the cell and the transitional endoplasmic

reticulum is used to breakdown glycogen to glucose. The endoplasmic

reticulum is versatile and grows and shrinks according to the cell's

activities.

Chloroplasts which are found in plant cells are used in the process of

photosynthesis. They fall into the category of plastids but they are

differentiated in that they contain chlorophyll. These organelles produce

chemical reactions from the energy that the sun gives them.

The Golgi complex's structure is made up of many flattened membranes sacs

that are surrounded by tubules or vesicles. These are called the

cisternae. The golgi complex accepts vesicles from the endoplasmic

reticulum and modifies them for usage in the cell. The golgi complex is

used to distribute materials which help form the cell membranes. They also

assemble the membranous material by producing glycolipids and

glycoproteins. The golgi complexes also hand their vesicles materials for

secretion. The golgi complex could not do its job without the help of

vesicles. Vesicles bring and send the organelle its materials.

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